Abstract

An active-fiber star coupler that uses arrays of N × N microlenses and liquid-crystal modulators is presented. A simplified implementation of this device uses an 8 × 8 array of Fresnel microlenses fan out an incident beam into 64 focused spots (an 18 dB fan-out loss); on–off capability (270:1 extinction ratio) at each element is provided by liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. A row of focused spots is coupled into an array of 1 × 8 multimode fibers with a measured excess loss of 12 dB along each path (with an estimated overall loss of 30 dB in an 8 × 8 device). A modification of this device that is capable of wavelength selection at individual output fibers is proposed for wavelength division multiplexing applications.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Becker, L. M. Johnson, “Low-loss multiple-branching circuit in Ti-in-diffused LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 9, 246–248 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).
  7. H. Hosokawa, T. Yamashita, “ZnS micro-Fresnel lens and its uses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5106–5111 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, T. Kishimoto, “Multiple imaging and multiple Fourier transformation using planar microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4064–4070 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Akiba, K. Iga, “Image multiplexer using a planar microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4092–4097 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, “Binary phase Fresnel lenses for generation of two-dimensional beam arrays,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1347–1354 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).
  16. J. S. Patel, K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 532–534 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

1990 (5)

1989 (2)

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

1985 (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Akiba, A.

Becker, R. A.

Bogert, G. A.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, H.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Habiby, S. F.

Hamanaka, K.

Henry, C. H.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horrobin, J.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, H.

Hubbard, W. M.

Iga, K.

Jahns, J.

Johnson, B. H.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

Kaminow, I. P.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, T.

Kistler, R. C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M. W.

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

Milbrodt, M. A.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Murphy, E. J.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

Nemoto, H.

Oikawa, M.

Okuda, E.

Olsson, N. A.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K. J.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J.

J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 532–534 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rastani, K.

Rice, T. C.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Spicer, R.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

Watson, J. E.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Yamashita, T.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a fiber-star coupler architecture that uses a microlens array to perform fan-out and a liquid-crystal SLM array to perform switching. To make the device wavelength selective for WDM applications an array of liquid-crystal tunable étalon filters can be used. (b) A compact hybridized version of the architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrograph of a section of the binary-phase Fresnel microlens array (8 × 8) used in our experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Geometry of the electrodes and the wire contacts for the liquid-crystal SLM array (8 × 8). Each pixel is individually addressable. (b) Photograph of the liquid-crystal modulator array showing all the electrodes and the appropriate contacts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper photograph, CCD camera image of the output end of a 1 × 8 array of fibers. Lower photograph, Scan of the intensity across the fiber array revealing uniformity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sequence of photographs from top to bottom show different combinations of elements in the 1 × 8 fibers turned off by the liquid-crystal SLM array.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Estimated Device Loss

Metrics