Abstract

An active-fiber star coupler that uses arrays of N × N microlenses and liquid-crystal modulators is presented. A simplified implementation of this device uses an 8 × 8 array of Fresnel microlenses fan out an incident beam into 64 focused spots (an 18 dB fan-out loss); on–off capability (270:1 extinction ratio) at each element is provided by liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. A row of focused spots is coupled into an array of 1 × 8 multimode fibers with a measured excess loss of 12 dB along each path (with an estimated overall loss of 30 dB in an 8 × 8 device). A modification of this device that is capable of wavelength selection at individual output fibers is proposed for wavelength division multiplexing applications.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, “Binary phase Fresnel lenses for generation of two-dimensional beam arrays,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1347–1354 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).
  16. J. S. Patel, K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 532–534 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

1989

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

1985

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

Akiba, A.

Becker, R. A.

Bogert, G. A.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, H.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Habiby, S. F.

Hamanaka, K.

Henry, C. H.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horrobin, J.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, H.

Hubbard, W. M.

Iga, K.

Jahns, J.

Johnson, B. H.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

Kaminow, I. P.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, T.

Kistler, R. C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M. W.

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

Milbrodt, M. A.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Murphy, E. J.

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

Nemoto, H.

Oikawa, M.

Okuda, E.

Olsson, N. A.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K. J.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J.

J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 532–534 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rastani, K.

Rice, T. C.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Spicer, R.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

Watson, J. E.

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

Yamashita, T.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Bogert, E. J. Murphy, R. T. Ku, “Low crosstalk 4 × 4 TiLiNbO3 optical switch with permanently attached polarization maintaining fiber array,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1542–1545 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Watson, M. A. Milbrodt, T. C. Rice, “A polarization-independent 1 × 16 guided-wave optical switch integrated on lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1171–1721 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Dragone, “Efficiency of a periodic array with nearly ideal element pattern,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 238–240 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, R. Spicer, “Electronically tunable liquid-crystal-étalon filter for high-density WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel, M. W. Maeda, “Multiwavelength tunable liquid-crystal étalon filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 643–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Patel, “Liquid crystals for optical modulation,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III. Clinical Reviews, U. Efron, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1150, 14–26 (1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a fiber-star coupler architecture that uses a microlens array to perform fan-out and a liquid-crystal SLM array to perform switching. To make the device wavelength selective for WDM applications an array of liquid-crystal tunable étalon filters can be used. (b) A compact hybridized version of the architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrograph of a section of the binary-phase Fresnel microlens array (8 × 8) used in our experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Geometry of the electrodes and the wire contacts for the liquid-crystal SLM array (8 × 8). Each pixel is individually addressable. (b) Photograph of the liquid-crystal modulator array showing all the electrodes and the appropriate contacts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper photograph, CCD camera image of the output end of a 1 × 8 array of fibers. Lower photograph, Scan of the intensity across the fiber array revealing uniformity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sequence of photographs from top to bottom show different combinations of elements in the 1 × 8 fibers turned off by the liquid-crystal SLM array.

Tables (1)

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Table I Estimated Device Loss

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