Abstract

We treat two different problems in the recognition of polychromatic images: (1) recognition of an object with a given shape and color combination; (2) recognition of an object regardless of its color combination. To solve each problem we propose different strategies. The number of filters and the objects to which the filters are matched vary with the strategy. Phase-only filters have been used to achieve recognition of both problems. Computer results are given for different targets and scenes to show the behavior of the proposed strategies.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. T. S. Yu, White Light Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  3. F. T. S. Yu, “Principle of optical processing with partially coherent light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 23, p. 223.
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).
  5. B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monochromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Gu, S. Lee, Y. Fainman, “Statistical recognition of color images,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3145–3152 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Use of color image correlation in the retrieval of gastric surface topography by endoscopic stereopair matching,” Appl. Opt. 27, 941–948 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).
  12. M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. D. Gianino, J. L. Horner, “Additional properties of the phase-only filter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 695–697 (1984).
  15. K. Chalasinska-Macukow, T. Nitka, “Phase only filter as matched spatial filter with enhanced discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 64, 224–228 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Campos, F. Turón, M. J. Yzuel, S. Vallmitjana, “Phase-only filters codified with Burckhardt’s method,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5232–5234 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monochromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Use of color image correlation in the retrieval of gastric surface topography by endoscopic stereopair matching,” Appl. Opt. 27, 941–948 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gu, S. Lee, Y. Fainman, “Statistical recognition of color images,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3145–3152 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chalasinska-Macukow, T. Nitka, “Phase only filter as matched spatial filter with enhanced discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 64, 224–228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (4)

J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Gianino, J. L. Horner, “Additional properties of the phase-only filter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 695–697 (1984).

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).

Badique, E.

E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Badiqué, E.

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Use of color image correlation in the retrieval of gastric surface topography by endoscopic stereopair matching,” Appl. Opt. 27, 941–948 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. Campos, F. Turón, M. J. Yzuel, S. Vallmitjana, “Phase-only filters codified with Burckhardt’s method,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5232–5234 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).

Caulfield, H. J.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chalasinska-Macukow, K.

K. Chalasinska-Macukow, T. Nitka, “Phase only filter as matched spatial filter with enhanced discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 64, 224–228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Fainman, Y.

Ferreira, C.

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).

Gianino, P. D.

P. D. Gianino, J. L. Horner, “Additional properties of the phase-only filter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 695–697 (1984).

J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, Z.

Honda, T.

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Use of color image correlation in the retrieval of gastric surface topography by endoscopic stereopair matching,” Appl. Opt. 27, 941–948 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

P. D. Gianino, J. L. Horner, “Additional properties of the phase-only filter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 695–697 (1984).

J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

Komiya, Y.

Kuo, C.

Lee, S.

Ludman, J. E.

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monochromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).

Nitka, T.

K. Chalasinska-Macukow, T. Nitka, “Phase only filter as matched spatial filter with enhanced discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 64, 224–228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Use of color image correlation in the retrieval of gastric surface topography by endoscopic stereopair matching,” Appl. Opt. 27, 941–948 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsujiuchi, J.

Turón, F.

Vallmitjana, S.

Warde, C.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).

F. T. S. Yu, “Principle of optical processing with partially coherent light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 23, p. 223.
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, White Light Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Yzuel, M. J.

J. Campos, F. Turón, M. J. Yzuel, S. Vallmitjana, “Phase-only filters codified with Burckhardt’s method,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5232–5234 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt. Commun. (6)

K. Chalasinska-Macukow, T. Nitka, “Phase only filter as matched spatial filter with enhanced discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 64, 224–228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman. “Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “A complex synthetic discriminant filter for the parallel recognition of color patterns,” Opt. Commun. 67, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Badique, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Badiqué, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. D. Gianino, J. L. Horner, “Additional properties of the phase-only filter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 695–697 (1984).

F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).

Other (3)

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Recognition of polychromatic test by multichannel correlation filtering,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 126–133 (1989).

F. T. S. Yu, White Light Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1985).

F. T. S. Yu, “Principle of optical processing with partially coherent light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 23, p. 223.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the 4f correlator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation intensity with a CMF for the recognition of object 1 in test 1 (Fig. 2): (a) GC; (b) RC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation intensity with a POF for the recognition of object 1 in test 1 (Fig. 2): (a) GC; (b) RC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Test 3.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Amplitude Transmittance of the Color Sectors

Tables Icon

Table II Values of the Correlation Peaks Corresponding to Figs. 4 and 5

Tables Icon

Table III Values of the Correlation Peaks Obtained when a POF was used to Recognize Object 1 in Test 2 (Fig. 3)

Tables Icon

Table IV Values of the Correlation Peaks Corresponding to the Recognition of Letter E in Test 3 (Fig. 6)

Tables Icon

Table V Values of the Correlation Peaks Corresponding to the Recognition of the Letter E in Test 1 (Fig. 2)

Tables Icon

Table VI Values of the Correlation Peaks Corresponding to the Recognition of the Letter X in Test 2 (Fig. 3)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

exp ( - i 2 π x 3 sin θ / λ i ) G λ i * ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) , i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,
o λ i ( x c , y c ) * g λ i ( x c , y c ) , i = 1 , 2 , 3
G λ i ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) = G λ i ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) × exp [ i ϕ λ i ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) ] .
G λ i P ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) = exp [ - i ϕ λ i ( x 3 / λ i f , y 3 / λ i f ) ]
o λ i ( x 1 , y 1 ) = α i c ( x 1 , y 1 ) + β i b ( x 1 , y 1 ) ,

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