Abstract

Scattering effects have always been an important systematic problem in absorption measurements. A new integrating cavity absorption meter has been developed that, in principle, is rigorously independent of scattering effects. The theoretical basis for this integrating cavity device is developed and applied to a generic experimental device: a one-dimensional model is described that demonstrates qualitatively the observed deviations from ideal; details of an actual device are provided; and experimental results for the absorption coefficient of aqueous solutions with various absorptions and with various concentrations of scatterers are presented.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. O. Hulburt, “Optics of distilled and natural water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698–705 (1945).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).
  3. J. Stone, “Measurements of the absorption of light in low-loss liquids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 327–333 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hass, J. W. Davisson, H. B. Rosenstock, J. Babiskin, “Measurement of very low absorption coefficients by laser calorimetry,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1128–1130 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Querry, P. G. Cary, R. C. Waring, “Split-pulse laser method for measuring attenuation coefficients of transparent liquids: application to deionized filtered water in the visible region,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3587–3592 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical absorptions of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348–3358 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. James, E. A. Birge, “A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake water,” Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. 31, 1–154 (1938).
  9. J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 318–324 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Trüper, C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94, 1255–1256 (1967).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Kiefer, J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 492–499 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles(Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).
  13. A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).
  14. H. Haardt, H. Maske, “Specific in vivo absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a at 675 nm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 608–619 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 47–48.
  17. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).
  19. K. Fischer, “Measurements of absorption of visible radiation by aerosol particles,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244–254 (1970).
  20. J. Heintzenberg, “Workshop measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient with an integrating plate method and an integrating sphere photometer,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 267–273.
  21. J. Heintzenberg, “Size-segregated measurements of particulate elemental carbon and aerosol light absorption at remote arctic locations,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 2461–2469 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. D. Clarke, “Integrating sandwich: a new method of measurement of the light absorption coefficient for atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3011–3020 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Elterman, “Integrating cavity spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2141–2142 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient of ocean water using isotropic illumination,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 142–148 (1988).
  25. R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 30–32.
  26. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960), pp. 4–11.
  27. A. W. Springsteen, “Diffuse Reflectance Coatings and Materials,” Rep. No. 2, Tech. Notes (Labsphere, Inc., North Sutton, N.H., 1988).
  28. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media—I exact solutions for one-dimensional model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 1065–1080 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314–329 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).
  31. R. M. Pope, “The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates,” thesis (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., 1990).

1989 (1)

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

H. Haardt, H. Maske, “Specific in vivo absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a at 675 nm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 608–619 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

J. Heintzenberg, “Size-segregated measurements of particulate elemental carbon and aerosol light absorption at remote arctic locations,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 2461–2469 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Clarke, “Integrating sandwich: a new method of measurement of the light absorption coefficient for atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3011–3020 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Kiefer, J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

M. R. Querry, P. G. Cary, R. C. Waring, “Split-pulse laser method for measuring attenuation coefficients of transparent liquids: application to deionized filtered water in the visible region,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3587–3592 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).

1975 (1)

1973 (2)

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media—I exact solutions for one-dimensional model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 1065–1080 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314–329 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

1970 (2)

P. Elterman, “Integrating cavity spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2141–2142 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. Fischer, “Measurements of absorption of visible radiation by aerosol particles,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244–254 (1970).

1967 (1)

H. Trüper, C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94, 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

1945 (1)

1938 (1)

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, “A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake water,” Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Adams, K. M.

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Babiskin, J.

Bartz, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 318–324 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, “A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake water,” Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 30–32.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cary, P. G.

Catchings, F. E.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960), pp. 4–11.

Clarke, A. D.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

A. D. Clarke, “Integrating sandwich: a new method of measurement of the light absorption coefficient for atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3011–3020 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covert, D. S.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

Davis, L. I.

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davisson, J. W.

Elterman, P.

P. Elterman, “Integrating cavity spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2141–2142 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Emel’yanov, A. M.

A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).

Fischer, K.

K. Fischer, “Measurements of absorption of visible radiation by aerosol particles,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244–254 (1970).

Fry, E. S.

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient of ocean water using isotropic illumination,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 142–148 (1988).

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Gilbert, G. D.

G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).

Haardt, H.

H. Haardt, H. Maske, “Specific in vivo absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a at 675 nm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 608–619 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hass, M.

Heintzenberg, J.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

J. Heintzenberg, “Size-segregated measurements of particulate elemental carbon and aerosol light absorption at remote arctic locations,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 2461–2469 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, “Workshop measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient with an integrating plate method and an integrating sphere photometer,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 267–273.

Honey, R. C.

G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).

Hulburt, E. O.

James, H. R.

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, “A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake water,” Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Japar, S. M.

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media—I exact solutions for one-dimensional model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 1065–1080 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314–329 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient of ocean water using isotropic illumination,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 142–148 (1988).

Kiefer, D. A.

D. A. Kiefer, J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 47–48.

Kosyakov, V. I.

A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).

Makushkin, B. V.

A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).

Maske, H.

H. Haardt, H. Maske, “Specific in vivo absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a at 675 nm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 608–619 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, R. L.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. E.

G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).

Noone, K. J.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

Patel, C. K. N.

Pierson, W. R.

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media—I exact solutions for one-dimensional model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 1065–1080 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314–329 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, R. M.

R. M. Pope, “The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates,” thesis (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., 1990).

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Rosenstock, H. B.

Sogandares, F.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Soohoo, J. B.

D. A. Kiefer, J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sorenson, G. P.

G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).

Springsteen, A. W.

A. W. Springsteen, “Diffuse Reflectance Coatings and Materials,” Rep. No. 2, Tech. Notes (Labsphere, Inc., North Sutton, N.H., 1988).

Stone, J.

Tam, A. C.

Trüper, H.

H. Trüper, C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94, 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

Waring, R. C.

Warren, S. G.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

Yentsch, C. S.

H. Trüper, C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94, 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 318–324 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Atmos. Environ. (3)

J. Heintzenberg, “Size-segregated measurements of particulate elemental carbon and aerosol light absorption at remote arctic locations,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 2461–2469 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Adams, L. I. Davis, S. M. Japar, W. R. Pierson, “Real-time, in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy—II. Validation for atmospheric elemental carbon aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 693–700 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

K. Fischer, “Measurements of absorption of visible radiation by aerosol particles,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244–254 (1970).

J. Bacteriol. (1)

H. Trüper, C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94, 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media—I exact solutions for one-dimensional model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 1065–1080 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

D. A. Kiefer, J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Haardt, H. Maske, “Specific in vivo absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a at 675 nm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 608–619 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. M. Emel’yanov, V. I. Kosyakov, B. V. Makushkin, “The use of an integrating cavity for measuring small optical absorptions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 31–33 (1978).

Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. (1)

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, “A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake water,” Wis. Acad. Sci. Trans. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Other (11)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 318–324 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles(Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 47–48.

J. Heintzenberg, “Workshop measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient with an integrating plate method and an integrating sphere photometer,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 267–273.

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient of ocean water using isotropic illumination,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 142–148 (1988).

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 30–32.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960), pp. 4–11.

A. W. Springsteen, “Diffuse Reflectance Coatings and Materials,” Rep. No. 2, Tech. Notes (Labsphere, Inc., North Sutton, N.H., 1988).

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

R. M. Pope, “The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates,” thesis (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., 1990).

G. D. Gilbert, R. C. Honey, R. E. Myers, G. P. Sorenson, “Optical absorption meter,” Final Rep. SRI Proj. 7440 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1969).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of a generic integrating cavity design. The leads into and out of the cavities are fiber-optic cables.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the one-dimensional model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized irradiance in the one-dimensional model as a function of the fractional distance from the boundary to the center of the sample. Normalization is with respect to the irradiance at the boundary. The absorption and scattering optical thicknesses are 0.01148 and 35.0, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Integrating cavity had. Cross sections arc shown parallel and transverse to the Z axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the ICAM system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectrum of an Irgalan Black sample measured on a Cary 219 spectrophotometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption at 530 and 630 nm as a function of S1/S0 for various concentrations of Irgalan Black.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

ICAM measurements of the absorption of pure water at 630 nm as a function of the concentration of scatterers for two different integrating cavity sizes: ○, the large cavity with dimensions specified in Section VI; ×, a smaller cavity with 3.7-cm i.d. At a concentration of 1 g/L the scattering coefficient is approximately 0.15 cm−1 at 630 nm. The absolute accuracy of the absorption values is ±0.01 m−1, and the relative accuracy is better than ±0.001 m−1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Difference between the measured absorption and that of pure water as a function of the concentration of scatterers added to the water at 530 (×) and 630 (●) nm. The measurements were made with the large cavity described in Section VI.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmission of isotropic unpolarized radiation incident upon a boundary with a medium of relative index of refraction n > 1. The fraction of the intensity transmitted is shown as a function of the angle of the transmitted ray with respect to the normal.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmission of isotropic unpolarized radiation incident upon a boundary with a medium of relative index of refraction n < 1. The fraction of the intensity transmitted is shown as a function of the angle of the transmitted ray with respect to the normal.

Tables (2)

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Table I Results of the One-Dimensional Model Calculation

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Table II Total Irradiance at the Sample Center (Point u), Normalized to the Total Irradiance at the Sample Boundary (Point t) for Several Combinations of τabs and τsca

Equations (20)

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F = Ω L ( r , Ω ^ ) Ω ^ d Ω ,
U = m c n L d Ω ,
- · F = ( a c / m ) U ,
- s F · d S = a c m V U d V .
P = a c m V U d V .
P = ( a c / m ) U V ,
F out = n ^ · Ω L ( r , Ω ^ ) Ω ^ d Ω = π L ,
U = 4 π m L c ,
U = 4 m c F out ,
P = 4 a V F out .
C 1 F 1 A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) = F 0 A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) + F 0 A D + 4 a 0 F 0 V 0 ,
F 0 A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) + C 2 F 2 A 1 ( 1 - ρ 1 ) = C 1 F 1 A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) + C 3 F 1 A 1 ( 1 - ρ 1 ) + 4 C 4 a 1 F 1 V 1 ,
a 0 = 1 4 V 0 [ C 1 A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) F 1 F 0 - A 0 ( 1 - ρ 0 ) - A D ] .
a 0 = K 1 S 1 S 0 - K 2 ,
a 0 = K 3 S 2 S 0 - K 4 ,
a IB + a W = K 1 S 1 / S 0 - K 2 ,
a IB = K 1 S 1 / S 0 - ( K 2 + a w ) ,
0 = K 1 S 1 / S 0 - K 2 ,
a R = K 1 S 1 / S 0 - K 2 ,
a s = K 1 S 1 / S 0 - ( K 2 + a R ) .

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