Abstract

A compact free-space optical system that uses arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets for chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical communication is described. A seven-channel optical interconnect has been demonstrated at 300 Mbits/s per channel, and we describe how such a system can be expanded to several hundred channels while its compactness and alignability are retained.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Jahns, “Integrated optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1998 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Popovic, R. Sprague, G. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. E. Derkits, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (personal communication, 1989).
  6. Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif.1986), Chap. 3, p. 669.
  10. P. Belland, J. P. Crenn, “Changes in the characteristics of a Gaussian beam weakly diffracted by a circular aperture,” Appl. Opt. 21, 522–527 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

1991

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1981

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Belland, P.

Boyd, G. D.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown-Goebeler, K. F.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

Connell, G.

Craft, N. C.

Crenn, J. P.

Cunningham, J. E.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

Derkits, G. E.

G. E. Derkits, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (personal communication, 1989).

Downs, M. M.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goosen, K. W.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

Jahns, J.

Kung, Sun-Yuan

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

LaMarche, R. E.

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. I.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lum, R. M.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mattera, V. D.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishitani, Y.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z.

Prise, M. E.

Sakurai, T.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif.1986), Chap. 3, p. 669.

Sprague, R.

Tell, B.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

Wada, O.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

Yamakoshi, S.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W. Y.

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

O. Wada, S. Yamakoshi, M. Abe, Y. Nishitani, T. Sakurai, “High radiance InGaAsP/InP LED’s for optical communication systems at 1.2–1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 174–178 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, V. D. Mattera, “Deep-red continuous wave top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity AlGaAs superlattice lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 108–109, (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Yan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, Sun-Yuan Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” presented at the Optical Society of America’s Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–8 March, 1991.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif.1986), Chap. 3, p. 669.

G. E. Derkits, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (personal communication, 1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of optical interconnect systems: I/O, input–output port.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrograph of the lenslet array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured lenslet profile and spherical fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and theoretical spot profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detail of the first airy ring.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photographs of the propagating beams.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gaussian beam propagation versus the lenslet diameter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lenslet-based chip-to-chip interconnect: QWP, quarter-wave plate.

Equations (2)

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r = ϕ 2 8 s + s 2 ,             f = r n - 1 ,             f / # = f ϕ .
I x = I 0 [ 2 J 1 ( x ) x ] 2 ,

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