Abstract

A concept for parallel optoelectronic bus-type interconnections (many participants–many participants) is given. The choices between multimode and single-mode fan-ins in free-space optical systems are discussed. When one single space-invariant multiple beam-splitting system is used for fan-out and fan-in simultaneously, the energy requirements for communications scale with 2N (for N participants on each busline), which is compared with N2 for space-variant systems. A simple demonstration experiment with a Dammann grating used as a multiple beam splitter is shown, and in a design example the theoretical performance is discussed.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851–2858 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).
  4. W. Stork, “Optical crossbar,” Optik 76, 173–175 (1987).
  5. D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).
  7. H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, “Computer generated holographic optical elements for optical interconnections of very large scale integrated circuits,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4377–4384 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communication, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 9, p. 191.
  12. H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 28, 312–315 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 28, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, L. A.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 28, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Drabik, T. J.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Esener, S. C.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Feldman, M.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Feldman, M. R.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851–2858 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Görtler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 28, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, “Computer generated holographic optical elements for optical interconnections of very large scale integrated circuits,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4377–4384 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Haumann, H. J.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Hesselink, L.

Johnston, A. R.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Kobolla, H.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Kostuk, R.

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Nixon, R.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Palais, J. C.

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communication, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 9, p. 191.

Sauer, F.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Stork, W.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Stork, “Optical crossbar,” Optik 76, 173–175 (1987).

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Streibl, N.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Völkel, R.

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

Wu, W. H.

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 28, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1620–1623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bergmann, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, M. Feldman, S. H. Lee, “Holographic optical interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109–1118 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

W. Stork, “Optical crossbar,” Optik 76, 173–175 (1987).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. J. Haumann, H. Kobolla, F. Sauer, W. Stork, N. Streibl, R. Völkel, “Optical bus based on light guiding plates,” in 1990 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Kobe, Japan, Y. Ichioka, S. Ishihara, J. Tsujiuchi, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1359 (1990).

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communication, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 9, p. 191.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multimode fan-in by integrating with a large detector over many directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-mode fan-in with a beam splitter. (The beams that are lost because of combination are shown by the dashed arrow.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bus interconnect between 4 transmitters and 4 receivers, each with a 1:4 fan-out–fan-in, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concept for a space-variant bus system with a single-mode fan-in.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concept for a bus system with a single-mode fan-in that is based on beam mixing in a space-invariant free-space spatial filtering setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration experiment: (a) static input pattern in the transmitter plane, (b) receiver plane of a system, with an intentional vertical separation of the different digits, showing the repetition of the input pattern by the convolution. The dashed box marks the physical location of the transmitters and receivers. The dashed line stresses the horizontal alignment.

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