Abstract

The optical radiation emitted from eight indirect ophthalmoscopes was measured. The levels were compared with the threshold limit values (TLVs) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Many tested instruments were found to emit unnecessarily high levels of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in addition to visible light. The levels of optical radiation emitted from most of the ophthalmoscopes were below the applicable TLVs. Nevertheless, suitable blocking filters can reduce the emission of ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Use of the ophthalmoscopes at the lowest possible power setting and the shortest possible exposure time would further minimize patient exposure.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices 1990–1991 (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1990).
  2. J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, “Retinal light exposure from ophthalmoscopes, slit lamps, and overhead surgical lamps,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1009–1015 (1980).
  3. J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. C. Delori, O. Pomerantzeff, M. A. Mainster, “Light levels in diagnostic instruments,” in Ocular Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.229, 154–160 (1980).
  5. J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. H. Sliney, B. C. Armstrong, “Radiometric evaluation of surgical microscope lights for hazards analysis,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1882–1889 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. H. James, R. G. Bostrom, D. Remark, D. H. Sliney, “Handheld ophthalmoscopes for hazards analysis: an evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5072–5076 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).
  9. W. J. Marshall, D. H. Sliney, “Hazard analysis of broad band optical sources,” Tech. Guide TG 085 (U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.1981).
  10. Code V, Optical Research Associates, 550 North Rosemead Blvd., Pasadena, Calif. 91107-2193.
  11. W. H. A. Fincham, M. H. Freeman, Optics, 9th ed. (Butterworth, London, 1980), p. 445.
  12. D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).
  13. G. Byrnes, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Md. 20814-50001 (personal communication, 1989).
  14. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, “The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources,” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 4, pp. 191–246.
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  16. Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.
  18. A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.
  19. D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.
  20. D. G. Pitts, A. P. Cullen, “Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis,” Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217, 285 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

1990 (1)

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (2)

D. G. Pitts, A. P. Cullen, “Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis,” Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217, 285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

1980 (2)

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, “Retinal light exposure from ophthalmoscopes, slit lamps, and overhead surgical lamps,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1009–1015 (1980).

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramov, I.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Allen, J.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Armstrong, B. C.

Berson, E. L.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Bonner, R. F.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Bostrom, R. G.

Byrnes, G.

G. Byrnes, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Md. 20814-50001 (personal communication, 1989).

Calkins, J. L.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, “Retinal light exposure from ophthalmoscopes, slit lamps, and overhead surgical lamps,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1009–1015 (1980).

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, C.

J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, A. P.

D. G. Pitts, A. P. Cullen, “Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis,” Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217, 285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D’Anna, S. A.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayhaw-Barker, P.

J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, O. Pomerantzeff, M. A. Mainster, “Light levels in diagnostic instruments,” in Ocular Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.229, 154–160 (1980).

Felten, R.

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Fincham, W. H. A.

W. H. A. Fincham, M. H. Freeman, Optics, 9th ed. (Butterworth, London, 1980), p. 445.

Fishman, G. A.

R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

Forbes, D.

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Fox, D.

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Freeman, M. H.

W. H. A. Fincham, M. H. Freeman, Optics, 9th ed. (Butterworth, London, 1980), p. 445.

Fulton, A.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Goldberg, M. F.

R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

Guerry, D.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Guerry, R. K.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Gwiazda, J.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Hainline, L.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, “The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources,” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 4, pp. 191–246.
[CrossRef]

Hochheimer, B. F.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, “Retinal light exposure from ophthalmoscopes, slit lamps, and overhead surgical lamps,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1009–1015 (1980).

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, L.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

James, R. H.

Jampol, L. M.

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kossel, J.

J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
[CrossRef]

La Vail, M. M.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Lawwill, T.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Lerman, S.

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

F. C. Delori, O. Pomerantzeff, M. A. Mainster, “Light levels in diagnostic instruments,” in Ocular Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.229, 154–160 (1980).

Marshall, W. J.

W. J. Marshall, D. H. Sliney, “Hazard analysis of broad band optical sources,” Tech. Guide TG 085 (U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.1981).

McGuiness, J.

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

Miller, S. A.

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, “The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources,” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 4, pp. 191–246.
[CrossRef]

Newsome, D. A.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

O’Neill, J. F.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Pitts, D. G.

D. G. Pitts, A. P. Cullen, “Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis,” Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217, 285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pomerantzeff, O.

F. C. Delori, O. Pomerantzeff, M. A. Mainster, “Light levels in diagnostic instruments,” in Ocular Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.229, 154–160 (1980).

Raymond, P.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Remark, D.

Ruffolo, J. J.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Saunders, R. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

Sliney, D. H.

R. H. James, R. G. Bostrom, D. Remark, D. H. Sliney, “Handheld ophthalmoscopes for hazards analysis: an evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5072–5076 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Sliney, B. C. Armstrong, “Radiometric evaluation of surgical microscope lights for hazards analysis,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1882–1889 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Marshall, D. H. Sliney, “Hazard analysis of broad band optical sources,” Tech. Guide TG 085 (U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.1981).

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Sperling, H. G.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Tso, M. O. M.

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

Varner, D.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

Waxler, M.

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

Wolbarsht, M. L.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Young, R. S. L.

R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

Am J. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, R. K. Guerry, “Action spectrum for retinal injury for near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. (1)

J. Kossel, C. Cole, P. Dayhaw-Barker, “Spectral irradiances of and maximal permissible exposures to two indirect ophthalmoscopes.”Am. J Optom. Phys Opt. 60, 616–621 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. G. Pitts, A. P. Cullen, “Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis,” Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217, 285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

R. S. L. Young, M. F. Goldberg, G. A. Fishman, “The minimum retinal irradiance required for viewing human fundi in indirect ophthalmoscopy,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 701–704 (1981).

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, “Retinal light exposure from ophthalmoscopes, slit lamps, and overhead surgical lamps,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1009–1015 (1980).

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. (1)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations at NBS,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 250–20 (1987).

Retina (1)

Z. Li, M. O. M. Tso, L. M. Jampol, S. A. Miller, M. Waxler, “Retinal injury induced by near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic and pseudophakic monkey eyes: a preliminary report,” Retina 10, 301–314 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. D’Anna, “Potential hazards from specific ophthalmic devices,” Vision Res. 20, 1039–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

F. C. Delori, O. Pomerantzeff, M. A. Mainster, “Light levels in diagnostic instruments,” in Ocular Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.229, 154–160 (1980).

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices 1990–1991 (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1990).

P. Dayhaw-Barker, D. Forbes, D. Fox, S. Lerman, J. McGuiness, M. Waxler, R. Felten, “Drug phototoxicity and visual health,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxler, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 147–179.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. F. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” Ibid., pp. 137–146.

D. A. Newsome, E. L. Berson, R. F. Bonner, L. Hyman, M. M. La Vail, T. Lawwill, M. A. Mainster, H. G. Sperling, M. O. M. Tso, “Possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations,” Ibid., pp. 89–102.

W. J. Marshall, D. H. Sliney, “Hazard analysis of broad band optical sources,” Tech. Guide TG 085 (U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.1981).

Code V, Optical Research Associates, 550 North Rosemead Blvd., Pasadena, Calif. 91107-2193.

W. H. A. Fincham, M. H. Freeman, Optics, 9th ed. (Butterworth, London, 1980), p. 445.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

G. Byrnes, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Md. 20814-50001 (personal communication, 1989).

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, “The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources,” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 4, pp. 191–246.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of indirect ophthalmoscope use.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral irradiance at the cornea of an indirect ophthalmoscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of blocking filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral irradiance of an indirect ophthalmoscope corrected by blocking filters.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of Indirect Ophthalmoscope Measurements with 20-D Lenses

Tables Icon

Table II ACGIHa Spectral Weighting Functions for Assessing Retinal Hazards

Tables Icon

Table III Results of Indirect Ophthalmoscope Measurements

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A r = Ω ( 1 . 7 ) 2 ,
E r = P b / A r ,
E r = 0 . 27 L s d e 2 ,
t TLV = 2 . 4 / E r ,
L t = K 1 / [ α ( t ) 1 / 2 ]

Metrics