Abstract

A method has been developed for analysis of a series of ellipsometric data taken in situ during deposition. With this method the optical constants n and k and thickness d of growing ion-beam-sputtered films of C, Si, Ni, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, and Au have been determined as a function of deposition time t. The minimum critical thickness dc needed for a film to become optically isotropic has been determined from the n, k, d-versus-t curves. Anomalous behavior of these curves appears in the region d ≲ dc resulting from a breakdown of the isotropic film model employed. This is shown, by transmission electron micrographs, to have a correlation with a transition region from island/anisotropic to continuous/isotropic.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Yamamoto, O. S. Heavens, “A vacuum automatic ellipsometer for principal angle of incidence measurements,” Surf. Sci. 96, 202–216 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.
  4. R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Nucleation and growth studies of gold films prepared by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 25, 265–278 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equation in reflection problems,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. 256, 61–84 (1964).
  7. R. H. Muller, “Present status of automatic ellipsometer,” Surf. Sci. 56, 19–36 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Archer, Manual on Ellipsometry (Gaertner Scientific Corporation, Chicago, Ill., 1968), p. 17.
  9. F. Abeles, T. Lopez-Rios, “Ellipsometry of metallic films and surfaces with nonlocal effects,” Surf. Sci. 96, 32–40 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yoriume, “Method for numerical inversion of the ellipsometry equations for transparent films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 888–891 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Nucleation and growth studies of gold films prepared by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 25, 265–278 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (2)

F. Abeles, T. Lopez-Rios, “Ellipsometry of metallic films and surfaces with nonlocal effects,” Surf. Sci. 96, 32–40 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, O. S. Heavens, “A vacuum automatic ellipsometer for principal angle of incidence measurements,” Surf. Sci. 96, 202–216 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. H. Muller, “Present status of automatic ellipsometer,” Surf. Sci. 56, 19–36 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equation in reflection problems,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. 256, 61–84 (1964).

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, T. Lopez-Rios, “Ellipsometry of metallic films and surfaces with nonlocal effects,” Surf. Sci. 96, 32–40 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.

Archer, R. J.

R. J. Archer, Manual on Ellipsometry (Gaertner Scientific Corporation, Chicago, Ill., 1968), p. 17.

Colson, J. P.

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equation in reflection problems,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. 256, 61–84 (1964).

Duffy, R. M.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

M. Yamamoto, O. S. Heavens, “A vacuum automatic ellipsometer for principal angle of incidence measurements,” Surf. Sci. 96, 202–216 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kinbara, A.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Rios, T.

F. Abeles, T. Lopez-Rios, “Ellipsometry of metallic films and surfaces with nonlocal effects,” Surf. Sci. 96, 32–40 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Nucleation and growth studies of gold films prepared by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 25, 265–278 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equation in reflection problems,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. 256, 61–84 (1964).

Muller, R. H.

R. H. Muller, “Present status of automatic ellipsometer,” Surf. Sci. 56, 19–36 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.

Netterfield, R. P.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Nucleation and growth studies of gold films prepared by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 25, 265–278 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pacey, C. G.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, H.

M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, O. S. Heavens, “A vacuum automatic ellipsometer for principal angle of incidence measurements,” Surf. Sci. 96, 202–216 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.

Yoriume, Y.

Yoshida, S.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Nucleation and growth studies of gold films prepared by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 25, 265–278 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, “Continuous ellipsometric determination of the optical constants and thickness of a silver film during deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8(5), 559–567 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. (1)

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equation in reflection problems,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Misc. Publ. 256, 61–84 (1964).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. M. Duffy, C. G. Pacey, “Characterization of growing thin films by in situ ellipsometry, spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements, and ion-scattering spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1995–2003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (3)

M. Yamamoto, O. S. Heavens, “A vacuum automatic ellipsometer for principal angle of incidence measurements,” Surf. Sci. 96, 202–216 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Muller, “Present status of automatic ellipsometer,” Surf. Sci. 56, 19–36 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Abeles, T. Lopez-Rios, “Ellipsometry of metallic films and surfaces with nonlocal effects,” Surf. Sci. 96, 32–40 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. J. Archer, Manual on Ellipsometry (Gaertner Scientific Corporation, Chicago, Ill., 1968), p. 17.

M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, H. Shibata, T. Namioka, “Thickness monitoring of ultra-thin films of multi-layered coatings for VUV mirrors by ellipsometry,” in Digest of the Thirteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan, 1984), pp. 626–627.

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