Abstract

A ruling engine for large and/or high-groove density gratings is developed. A hybrid driving method that uses a piezoelectric device and a screw-nut mechanism is adopted to achieve stop-and-go blank motion with a closed-loop control system. Several test gratings, including a ruled area of 300(width) × 200(groove length) mm2, groove densities of 6000 and 10,000 grooves/mm, and a uniform and varied-line space, are ruled to confirm the basic functions of the ruling engine. A set of four spherical, varied-line-space gratings with central groove densities of 6000, 4550, 3450, and 2616 grooves/mm and a ruled area of 200 × 200 mm2 is ruled for the orbital retrievable far and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.
  2. T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).
  3. T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, “Soft x-ray monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for synchrotron radiation: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 146–153 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Kita, T. Harada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings for a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 22, 512–513 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. W. Stroke, “Diffraction gratings,” in Optische Instrumente, Band 29 of Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. R. Harrison, G. W. Stroke, “Interferometric control of grating ruling with continuous carriage advance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 112–121(1955).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. W. Babcock, “Control of a ruling engine by a modulated interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 1, 415–419 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).
  13. G. Amat, A. Arsac, J. Brochard, J. Brossel, P. Connes, L. Couture, P. Jacquinot, A. Maréchal, “Optics in France,” Appl. Opt. 1, 260–278 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Horsfield, “Ruling engine with hydraulic drive,” Appl. Opt. 4, 189–193 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. R. Bartlett, P. C. Wildy, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric drive,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1–3 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Takashima, S. Nawata, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1445–1446 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Gee, “A piezo-stepping diffraction grating ruling engine with continuous grating-blank position control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 169–174 (1975).
  18. G. R. Harrison, “The diffraction grating—an opinionated appraisal,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2039–2048 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).
  20. M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-grooves mm−1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, “The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for the ORFEUS mission,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, R. F. Malina, S. Bowyer, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1991), pp. 442–447.

1990

1989

1986

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

1983

1980

1978

K. Takashima, S. Nawata, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1445–1446 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. E. Gee, “A piezo-stepping diffraction grating ruling engine with continuous grating-blank position control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 169–174 (1975).

I. R. Bartlett, P. C. Wildy, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric drive,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1–3 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).

1973

1966

Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.

1965

W. R. Horsfield, “Ruling engine with hydraulic drive,” Appl. Opt. 4, 189–193 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

1962

1955

Amat, G.

Arsac, A.

Babcock, H. W.

Bartlett, I. R.

Bowyer, S.

Brochard, J.

Brossel, J.

Connes, P.

Couture, L.

Edelstein, J.

Gee, A. E.

A. E. Gee, “A piezo-stepping diffraction grating ruling engine with continuous grating-blank position control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 169–174 (1975).

Gerasimov, F. M.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Harada, T.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-grooves mm−1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, “Soft x-ray monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for synchrotron radiation: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 146–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Kita, T. Harada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings for a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 22, 512–513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).

Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.

T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).

Harrison, G. R.

Hettrick, M. C.

Horsfield, W. R.

Hurwitz, M.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-grooves mm−1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, “The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for the ORFEUS mission,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, R. F. Malina, S. Bowyer, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1991), pp. 442–447.

Itou, M.

M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, “Soft x-ray monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for synchrotron radiation: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 146–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).

Jacquinot, P.

Jelinsky, P.

Kita, T.

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-grooves mm−1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, “Soft x-ray monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for synchrotron radiation: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 146–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Kita, T. Harada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings for a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 22, 512–513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).

T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).

Kuroda, H.

Malina, R. F.

Maréchal, A.

Marichev, B. V.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Martin, C.

Mikuni, A.

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morita, K.

Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.

Moriyama, S.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).

Mrowka, S.

Nakano, N.

Nawata, S.

K. Takashima, S. Nawata, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1445–1446 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, V. P.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Sergeev, V. V.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Stroke, G. W.

G. R. Harrison, G. W. Stroke, “Interferometric control of grating ruling with continuous carriage advance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 112–121(1955).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Stroke, “Diffraction gratings,” in Optische Instrumente, Band 29 of Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).
[CrossRef]

Taira, H.

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).

Takashima, K.

K. Takashima, S. Nawata, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1445–1446 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Teltevskii, I. A.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Wildy, P. C.

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.

Appl. Opt.

T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, “Soft x-ray monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for synchrotron radiation: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 146–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kita, T. Harada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings for a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 22, 512–513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edelstein, M. C. Hettrick, S. Mrowka, P. Jelinsky, C. Martin, “Extreme UV measurements of a varied line-space Hitachi reflection grating: efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3267–3270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, C. Martin, S. Mrowka, “Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1737–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Amat, A. Arsac, J. Brochard, J. Brossel, P. Connes, L. Couture, P. Jacquinot, A. Maréchal, “Optics in France,” Appl. Opt. 1, 260–278 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Horsfield, “Ruling engine with hydraulic drive,” Appl. Opt. 4, 189–193 (1965).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Bartlett, P. C. Wildy, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric drive,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1–3 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Babcock, “Control of a ruling engine by a modulated interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 1, 415–419 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Harrison, “The diffraction grating—an opinionated appraisal,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2039–2048 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, J. Edelstein, T. Harada, T. Kita, “EUV efficiency of a 6000-grooves mm−1 diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1866–1867 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng.

Y. Yamada, T. Harada, K. Morita, “A new Japanese ruling engine,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 69, 1557–1567 (1966), in Japanese.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 175–179(1975).

K. Takashima, S. Nawata, “Diffraction grating ruling engine with piezoelectric control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1445–1446 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gee, “A piezo-stepping diffraction grating ruling engine with continuous grating-blank position control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 169–174 (1975).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

T. Harada, T. Kita, M. Itou, H. Taira, A. Mikuni, “Mechanically ruled diffraction gratings for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 272–277 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

F. M. Gerasimov, V. P. Sergeev, I. A. Teltevskii, V. V. Sergeev, B. V. Marichev, “The use of moire interference fringes to control the ruling of diffraction gratings,” Opt. Spectrosc. 19, 152–156 (1965).

Other

T. Harada, H. Taira, T. Kita, M. Itou, “Groove profile measurement of diffraction gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.815, 118–123 (1987).

G. W. Stroke, “Diffraction gratings,” in Optische Instrumente, Band 29 of Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).
[CrossRef]

M. Hurwitz, S. Bowyer, “The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for the ORFEUS mission,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, R. F. Malina, S. Bowyer, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1991), pp. 442–447.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the ruling engine.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the main part of the ruling engine.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the blank carriage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measuring result for the yaw of the blank carriage translation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical layout of the laser interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Control system block diagram: LPF, low-path filter; PZT, piezoelectric device; AMP, amplifier.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transient responses of the blank positioning system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of blank positioning during some ruling cycles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of the 300 mm × 200 mm grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interferograms of the 300 × 200-mm2 grating taken in the first order.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Groove profiles of 6000-grooves/mm and 10,000-grooves/mm gratings observed by a scanning electron microscope.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of the varied space grooves observed by a scanning electron microscope. The spacing varies from 0.3 to 1.7 μm in increments of 50 nm for each groove.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photograph of the set of four large and high-groove density gratings for ORFEUS.

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