Abstract

In the course of the development of a domed magnesium fluoride detector window for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, slated to be a second-generation instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, sample window materials from various commercial sources displayed a wide variability in vacuum ultraviolet transmittance. As a result a test program was undertaken in cooperation with the supplier of a prototype domed window to maximize transmittance. Results of the program have provided clues to the causes of the variations experienced, and they point to careful selection of raw materials and strict process control to achieve optimization.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).
  2. D. F. Heath, P. A. Sacher, “Effects of a simulated high-energy space environment on the ultraviolet transmittance of optical materials between 1050 Å and 3000 Å,” Appl. Opt. 5, 937–943 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, p. 181.
  4. A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).
  5. J. B. Benavides, J. L. Wall, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communications, 1989).
  6. J. T. Van Sant, H. W. Leidecker, T. M. Heslin, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1989).

1988 (1)

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

1966 (1)

Benavides, J. B.

J. B. Benavides, J. L. Wall, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communications, 1989).

Boggess, A.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Bottema, M.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Green, R. F.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Gull, T. R.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Heap, S. R.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Heath, D. F.

Heslin, T. M.

J. T. Van Sant, H. W. Leidecker, T. M. Heslin, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1989).

Hutchings, J. B.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Jenkins, E. B.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Krueger, V. L.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Leidecker, H. W.

J. T. Van Sant, H. W. Leidecker, T. M. Heslin, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1989).

Linsky, J. L.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Maran, S. P.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Melcher, R. W.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Meyer, W.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Moos, H. W.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Pukhov, A. M.

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Rebar, F. J.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Roesler, F.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Sacher, P. A.

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, p. 181.

Shine, R. A.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Shishatskaya, L. P.

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Tikhomirov, G. P.

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Timothy, J. G.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Turovskaya, T. S.

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Van Sant, J. T.

J. T. Van Sant, H. W. Leidecker, T. M. Heslin, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1989).

Vangonen, A. I.

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Vitagliano, H. D.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Wall, J. L.

J. B. Benavides, J. L. Wall, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communications, 1989).

Weistrop, D. E.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Wolff, S. C.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Woodgate, B. E.

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. I. Vangonen, A. M. Pukhov, L. P. Shishatskaya, G. P. Tikhomirov, T. S. Turovskaya, “Methods of increasing the transmission of polished magnesium fluoride windows in the VUV spectral region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 55, 672–674 (1988).

Other (4)

J. B. Benavides, J. L. Wall, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communications, 1989).

J. T. Van Sant, H. W. Leidecker, T. M. Heslin, Materials Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1989).

B. E. Woodgate, A. Boggess, T. R. Gull, S. R. Heap, V. L. Krueger, S. P. Maran, R. W. Melcher, F. J. Rebar, H. D. Vitagliano, R. F. Green, S. C. Wolff, J. B. Hutchings, E. B. Jenkins, J. L. Linsky, H. W. Moos, F. Roesler, R. A. Shine, J. G. Timothy, D. E. Weistrop, M. Bottema, W. Meyer, “Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627, 350–362 (1986).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, p. 181.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the magnesium fluoride ingots (boules) sampled in the optimization test program, including a boule cross section showing the general locations in the slices from which the samples were cored.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram showing the transmittance distribution of samples from the top and cone sections of the boules represented in the optimization test program.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram showing the transmittance distribution of samples from the edges and middle sections of the boule slices represented in the optimization test program.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Root-mean-square roughness distribution of the optimization test program samples as a function of their transmittance at a wavelength of 121.6 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the apparatus used to measure the transmittance of prototype magnesium fluoride domed windows.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in the transmittance uniformity of two prototype domed magnesium fluoride windows as a function of the degree of rotation from their optical axis. Transmittances are normalized to the value at the vertex.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Transmittance at 121.6 nm of Optimization Test Program Samples

Tables Icon

Table II Distribution of Sample Transmittances as a Function of the Point of the Origin within the Ingot

Metrics