Abstract

A linear form of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is formulated for the direct and simultaneous estimation of temperature and absorbing constituent profiles (e.g., water vapor, ozone, methane) from observations of spectral radiances. This unique linear form of the RTE results from a definition for the deviation of the true gas concentration profiles from an initial specification in terms of the deviation of their effective temperature profiles from the true atmospheric temperature profile. The effective temperature profile for any absorbing constituent is that temperature profile which satisfies the observed radiance spectra under the assumption that the initial absorber concentration profile is correct. Differences between the effective temperature, derived for each absorbing constituent, and the true atmospheric temperature are proportional to the error of the initial specification of the gas concentration profiles. The gas concentration profiles are thus specified after inversion of the linearized RTE from the retrieved effective temperature profiles assuming that one of the assumed concentration profiles is known (e.g., CO2). Because the solution is linear and simultaneous, the solution is computationally efficient. This efficiency is important for dealing with radiance spectra containing several thousand radiance observations as obtained from current airborne and planned future spaceborne interferometer spectrometer sounders. Here the solution is applied to spectral radiance observations simulated for current filter radiometers and planned spectrometers to demonstrate the anticipated improvement in future satellite sounding performance as a result of improved instrumentation and associated sounding retrieval methodology.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. E. Revercomb et al., “Radiometric Calibration of IR Interferometers: Experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) Aircraft Instrument,” Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 89–101.
  2. W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.
  4. W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).
  5. D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).
  6. H. E. Fleming, L. Barnes, “Satellite Tomographic Remote Sensing By Frequency Scanning,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 35–50.
  7. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.
  8. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).
  9. D. S. Crosby, M. P. Weinreb, “Effect of Incorrect Atmospheric Statistics On the Accuracy Of Temperature Profiles Derived From Satellite Measurements,” J. Stat. Comput. Simul. 3, 41–51 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier Transform Spectrometers: Solution to a Problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).
  12. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.
  13. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).
  14. N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).
  15. J. F. LeMarshall, “An Intercomparison of Temperature and Moisture Fields Retrieved From TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder Data,” in Technical Proceedings, Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, Ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meterological Satellite Studies, Madison, WI, 1985).
  16. N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, “Results Of a Joint NOAA/NASA Sounder Simulation Study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 44–56 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. L. Smith et al., “GAPEX—A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 310–318 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. L. Smith et al., “GHIS—The GOES High Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteor. Accepted for publication, Dec. issue, Vol. 29, No. 12.

1989 (1)

W. L. Smith et al., “GAPEX—A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 310–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1986 (1)

D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).

1979 (3)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. S. Crosby, M. P. Weinreb, “Effect of Incorrect Atmospheric Statistics On the Accuracy Of Temperature Profiles Derived From Satellite Measurements,” J. Stat. Comput. Simul. 3, 41–51 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abel, P. G.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.

Barnes, L.

H. E. Fleming, L. Barnes, “Satellite Tomographic Remote Sensing By Frequency Scanning,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 35–50.

Buijs, H.

Chalfant, M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.

Crosby, D. S.

D. S. Crosby, M. P. Weinreb, “Effect of Incorrect Atmospheric Statistics On the Accuracy Of Temperature Profiles Derived From Satellite Measurements,” J. Stat. Comput. Simul. 3, 41–51 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dohler, W.

D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).

Fleming, H. E.

H. E. Fleming, L. Barnes, “Satellite Tomographic Remote Sensing By Frequency Scanning,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 35–50.

Grody, N.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

Gruber, A.

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

Guldner, J.

D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).

Hayden, C. M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

Howell, H. B.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier Transform Spectrometers: Solution to a Problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

Huang, H.-L.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

Kageyama, K.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.

LaPorte, D.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

LaPorte, D. D.

LeMarshall, J. F.

J. F. LeMarshall, “An Intercomparison of Temperature and Moisture Fields Retrieved From TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder Data,” in Technical Proceedings, Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, Ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meterological Satellite Studies, Madison, WI, 1985).

McMillin, L.

N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, “Results Of a Joint NOAA/NASA Sounder Simulation Study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 44–56 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

McMillin, L. M.

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

Phillips, N.

N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, “Results Of a Joint NOAA/NASA Sounder Simulation Study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 44–56 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. A.

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier Transform Spectrometers: Solution to a Problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

H. E. Revercomb et al., “Radiometric Calibration of IR Interferometers: Experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) Aircraft Instrument,” Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith et al., “GAPEX—A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 310–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier Transform Spectrometers: Solution to a Problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

W. L. Smith et al., “GHIS—The GOES High Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteor. Accepted for publication, Dec. issue, Vol. 29, No. 12.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

Spankuch, D.

D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).

Sromovsky, L. A.

Susskind, J.

N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, “Results Of a Joint NOAA/NASA Sounder Simulation Study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 44–56 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wark, D.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

Weinreb, M. P.

D. S. Crosby, M. P. Weinreb, “Effect of Incorrect Atmospheric Statistics On the Accuracy Of Temperature Profiles Derived From Satellite Measurements,” J. Stat. Comput. Simul. 3, 41–51 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

D. Spankuch, J. Guldner, W. Dohler, “Investigations On Temperature Soundings Using Partial Interferograms,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 60, 103–122 (1986).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Wark, L. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operation Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

N. A. Phillips, L. M. McMillin, D. Wark, A. Gruber, “An Evaluation of Early Operational Temperature Soundings from TIROS-N,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1188–1197 (1979).

W. L. Smith et al., “GAPEX—A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 310–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, “Results Of a Joint NOAA/NASA Sounder Simulation Study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 44–56 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “The Use of Interferometric Radiance Measurements For Sounding the Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 566–575 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Stat. Comput. Simul. (1)

D. S. Crosby, M. P. Weinreb, “Effect of Incorrect Atmospheric Statistics On the Accuracy Of Temperature Profiles Derived From Satellite Measurements,” J. Stat. Comput. Simul. 3, 41–51 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

H. E. Revercomb et al., “Radiometric Calibration of IR Interferometers: Experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) Aircraft Instrument,” Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, D. LaPorte, K. Kageyama, “Improved Geostationary Satellite Soundings For the Mesoscale Weather Analysis/Forecast Operation,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting ESA SP-282 (1987), pp. 79–83.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A Satellite Instrument to Observe Temperature and Moisture Profiles With High Vertical Resolution,” presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

H. E. Fleming, L. Barnes, “Satellite Tomographic Remote Sensing By Frequency Scanning,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 35–50.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The Simultaneous Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles—Applications to Measurements with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “High Resolution Interferometer Sounder—the Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles,” in Proceedings, Third Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1988).

W. L. Smith et al., “GHIS—The GOES High Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteor. Accepted for publication, Dec. issue, Vol. 29, No. 12.

J. F. LeMarshall, “An Intercomparison of Temperature and Moisture Fields Retrieved From TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder Data,” in Technical Proceedings, Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, Ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meterological Satellite Studies, Madison, WI, 1985).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, P. G. Abel, C. M. Hayden, M. Chalfant, N. Grody, “NIMBUS-5 Sounder Data Processing System, Part I: Measurement Characteristics and Data Reduction Procedures,” NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 57, Washington, DC (1974).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “1986: Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: FAS-CODZ, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, AMS,” Williamsburg, VA, 141–144.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Temperature profile retrieval errors for I, full AIRS spectral resolution (λ/Δλ = 1200) and coverage (590–2940 cm−1); II, partial AIRS spectral coverage (590–1930 cm−1); and III, limited AIRS spectral coverage (590–1100 cm−1). (b) Water vapor profile retrieval errors for the I, II, and III spectral coverages listed above.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temperature profile retrieval errors for I, full AIRS spectral resolution (λ/Δλ = 1200) and coverage (590–2940 cm−1); IV, a selection of 115 AIRS spectral channels listed in the NASA basic information package (BIP); and V, the 19 low spectral resolution (λ/Δλ = 50) HIRS infrared channels. (b) Water vapor profile retrieval errors for the I, IV, and V spectral characteristics listed above.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieval error of effective ozone temperature and vertically integrated ozone concentration. The temperature scale ranges from 0 to 10 K, whereas, the relative concentration scale ranges from 0 to 4%.

Equations (42)

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R ν = B ν ( p s ) τ ν ( p s ) 0 p s B ν ( p ) d τ ν ( p ) .
R ν o = B ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) 0 p s B ν o ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) .
δ R ν = R ν R ν o = B ν ( p s ) τ ν ( p s ) B ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) 0 p s B ν ( p ) d τ ν ( p ) + 0 p s B ν o ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) .
δ B ν ( p ) = B ν ( p ) B ν o ( p ) , δ τ ν ( p ) = τ ν ( p ) τ ν o ( p ) ,
δ R ν = B ν ( p s ) δ τ ν ( p s ) + δ B ν ( p ) τ ν o ( p s ) 0 p s B ν ( p ) d [ δ τ ν ( p ) ] 0 p s δ B ν ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) .
0 p s B ν ( p ) d [ δ τ ν ( p ) ] = B ν ( p s δ τ ν ( p s ) 0 p s δ τ ν ( p ) d B ν ( p ) ,
δ R ν = τ ν o ( p s ) δ B ν ( p s ) 0 p s δ B ν ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) + 0 p s δ τ ν ( p ) d B ν ( p ) .
d B ν o ( p o ) = β ν o ( p ) d T ( p ) ,
δ R ν = β ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) δ T s 0 p s β ν o ( p ) δ T ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) d p d p + 0 p s β ν o ( p ) δ τ ν ( p ) d T ( p ) d p d p .
τ ν ( p ) = exp [ 1 g i 0 p k ν i q i ( p ) d p ] .
τ o = Π τ i o , d τ o = τ o i = 1 N d ln τ i o ,
δ τ = τ o i = 1 N δ ln τ i .
τ ν i ( p ) = exp [ 1 g 0 p k ν i q i ( p ) d p ] = exp ( 0 U i k ν i d U i ) ,
ln τ ν i = 0 U i k ν i d U i = 0 p k ν i d U i d p d p .
δ ln τ ν i = 0 p k ν i d δ U i d p d p = δ U i d ln τ ν i o d U i o o p δ U i d d p ( d ln τ ν i o d U i o ) d p ,
k ν i d ln τ ν i o / d U i o .
δ τ ν = τ ν o i δ U i d ln τ ν i o d U i o τ ν o i 0 p δ U i d d p ( d ln τ i o d U i o ) d p ,
δ R ν = β ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) δ T s 0 p s β ν o ( p ) δ T ( p ) d τ ν o ( p ) d p d p + i 0 p s δ U i ( p ) τ ν o ( d ln τ ν i o d U i o ) β ν o ( p ) d T ( p ) d p d p .
τ ν i o p = τ ν i o U i o p d ln τ ν i o d U i o ,
δ R ν = β ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) δ T s i 0 p s { δ T ( p ) [ d U i o ( p ) / d p ] δ U i ( p ) [ d T ( p ) / d p ] } W ν i ( p ) d p ,
W ν i ( p ) = β ν o ( p ) τ ν o ( p ) [ d ln τ ν i o ( p ) / d U i o ( p ) ] .
δ T i ( p ) δ T ( p ) δ U i ( p ) [ d T ( p ) d U i o ( p ) ] ,
δ R ν = β ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) δ T s i = 1 N 0 p s β ν o ( p ) δ T i ( p ) τ ν o ( p ) d ln τ ν i o ( p ) ,
β ν o ( p ) = B ν ( T o ) / T , δ T i ( p ) = T i ( p ) T o ( p ) .
U i ( p ) = U i o ( p ) + d U i o ( p ) d T ( p ) [ T ( p ) T i ( p ) ] .
δ R ν = B ν ( T B o ) T δ T B ν ,
δ T B ν = β ˜ ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) δ T s i = 1 N 0 p s β ˜ ν o ( p ) δ T i ( p ) τ ν o ( p ) d ln τ ν i o ( p ) ,
β ˜ ν o ( p ) = [ B ν ( T o ) / T ] / [ B ν ( T B o ) / T ] ·
t b = A t .
A ν , o = β ˜ ν o ( p s ) τ ν o ( p s ) , A ν , j = β ˜ ν o ( p i , j ) τ ν o ( p i , j ) d ln τ ν i o ( p i , j ) , j = 1 , 2 ,.., N × M i ,
t = S d A T ( AS d A T + E b ) 1 t b ,
S j , k = ( 1 / N s ) n = 1 N s [ T i n ( p j ) T o ( p j ) ] [ T i n ( p k ) T o ( p k ) ] j , k = 1 , , N × M i i = 1 , , N
T i ( p j ) = T o ( p j ) d T ( p j ) d U i o ( p j ) [ U i ( p j ) U i o ( p j ) ] .
S d A T ( AS d A T + E b ) 1 = ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 A T E b 1
t = ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 A T E b 1 t b = C t b .
E b ( i , j ) = σ c 2 ( T b ) ( ν i ) , i = j , E b ( i , j ) = 0 , i j ,
D = T ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 A T E b 1 AT ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 A T E b 1 E ˜ b ,
D * = D D T = ( I CA ) TT T ( I A T C T ) + C E b C T = ( I CA ) S I ( I A T C T ) + C E b C T ,
D * = [ I ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 A T E b 1 A ] × S I [ I A T E b 1 A ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 ] + C E b C T .
D * = ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 S I S d 1 ) × ( A T E b 1 A + S d 1 ) 1 .
U = U o + F [ T a T ] ,
E * = E u T E u = F [ D T a * D T a , T u * D T u , T a * + D T j , T u * ] F ,

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