Abstract

Thin vanadium oxide films were made by vacuum evaporation followed by the annealing posttreatment in the presence of air. The thickness increased by a factor as large as ~2.3 on oxidation. Electron diffractograms indicated a bcc → monoclinic transformation during the annealing, and electron micrographs showed pronounced grain growth. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity as well as spectral transmittance was measured vs annealing time. At an initial thickness of 0.12 μm, it took a few hours to establish VO2 films with a well defined semiconductor–metal transition and concomitant thermochromic switching at ~57°C.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. G. Granqvist, Spectrally Selective Surfaces for Heating and Cooling Applications (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1989).
  2. C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990); C. G. Granqvist, “Chromogenic Materials for Transmittance Control of Large-Area Windows,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. to be published.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Goodenough, “Metallic Oxides,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 5, 145–399 (1971); “Anomalous Properties of the Vanadium Oxides,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 1, 101–138 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205–214 (1986); “Thermochromic Materials and Devices: Inorganic Systems,” in C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal—Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999–1012 (1976) [Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 45, 1561–1583 (1975)].
  7. A. A. Bugayev, F. A. Chudnovskii, B. P. Zakharchenya, “A Study of the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Oxides,” in Semiconductor Physics, V. M. Turkevich, V. Y. Frenkel, Eds. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1986), pp. 265–292.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).
  10. M. Fukuma, S. Zembutsu, S. Miyazawa, “Preparation of VO2 Thin Film and Its Direct Optical Bit Recording Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 22, 265–268 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. C. Case, “Modifications in the Phase Transition Properties of Predeposited VO2 Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1509–1512 (1984); “Reactive Evaporation of Anomalous Blue VO2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1550–1553 (1987); “Simple Resistance Model Fit to the Oxidation of a Vanadium Film into VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 123–127 (1988); “Effects of Low-Energy Low-Flux Bombardment on the Properties of VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. A. Nyberg, R. A. Buhrman, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Reactively Evaporated VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301–302 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986); “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987); “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201–2206 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].
  19. T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].
  21. K.-D. Ufert, “Doping of VO2 Thin Films by Ion Implantation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42, 187–190 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4–6 (1989); “Thermochromism of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings,” in Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown From VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73–82 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. Balberg, S. Trokman, “High-Contrast Optical Storage in VO2 Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2111–2119 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. T. Swann, D. J. DeSmet, “Ellipsometric Investigation of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1335–1338 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).
  33. C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

1989 (2)

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4–6 (1989); “Thermochromism of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings,” in Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205–214 (1986); “Thermochromic Materials and Devices: Inorganic Systems,” in C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986); “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987); “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. T. Swann, D. J. DeSmet, “Ellipsometric Investigation of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1335–1338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

G. A. Nyberg, R. A. Buhrman, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Reactively Evaporated VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301–302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Modifications in the Phase Transition Properties of Predeposited VO2 Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1509–1512 (1984); “Reactive Evaporation of Anomalous Blue VO2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1550–1553 (1987); “Simple Resistance Model Fit to the Oxidation of a Vanadium Film into VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 123–127 (1988); “Effects of Low-Energy Low-Flux Bombardment on the Properties of VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

1981 (1)

L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

K.-D. Ufert, “Doping of VO2 Thin Films by Ion Implantation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42, 187–190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal—Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999–1012 (1976) [Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 45, 1561–1583 (1975)].

1975 (2)

I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. Balberg, S. Trokman, “High-Contrast Optical Storage in VO2 Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2111–2119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201–2206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. B. Goodenough, “Metallic Oxides,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 5, 145–399 (1971); “Anomalous Properties of the Vanadium Oxides,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 1, 101–138 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. Adler, “Mechanism for Metal—Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).

Adler, D.

D. Adler, “Mechanism for Metal—Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aldred, A.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Babkin, E. V.

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Babulanam, S. M.

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balberg, I.

I. Balberg, S. Trokman, “High-Contrast Optical Storage in VO2 Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2111–2119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Begishev, A. R.

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

Bené, R. W.

R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beresneva, L. A.

L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bugayev, A. A.

A. A. Bugayev, F. A. Chudnovskii, B. P. Zakharchenya, “A Study of the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Oxides,” in Semiconductor Physics, V. M. Turkevich, V. Y. Frenkel, Eds. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1986), pp. 265–292.
[CrossRef]

Buhrman, R. A.

G. A. Nyberg, R. A. Buhrman, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Reactively Evaporated VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301–302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Case, F. C.

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Modifications in the Phase Transition Properties of Predeposited VO2 Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1509–1512 (1984); “Reactive Evaporation of Anomalous Blue VO2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1550–1553 (1987); “Simple Resistance Model Fit to the Oxidation of a Vanadium Film into VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 123–127 (1988); “Effects of Low-Energy Low-Flux Bombardment on the Properties of VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chain, E. E.

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986); “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987); “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charyev, A. A.

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chudnovskii, F. A.

E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal—Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999–1012 (1976) [Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 45, 1561–1583 (1975)].

A. A. Bugayev, F. A. Chudnovskii, B. P. Zakharchenya, “A Study of the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Oxides,” in Semiconductor Physics, V. M. Turkevich, V. Y. Frenkel, Eds. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1986), pp. 265–292.
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J. E.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

DeSmet, D. J.

J. T. Swann, D. J. DeSmet, “Ellipsometric Investigation of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1335–1338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Devyatova, S. F.

L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dolgarev, A. P.

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Duchene, J.

J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, H. K.

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201–2206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, T. S.

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fine, M. E.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, M.

Galiev, G. B.

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

Georgopoulos, P.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goodenough, J. B.

J. B. Goodenough, “Metallic Oxides,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 5, 145–399 (1971); “Anomalous Properties of the Vanadium Oxides,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 1, 101–138 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4–6 (1989); “Thermochromism of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings,” in Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, Spectrally Selective Surfaces for Heating and Cooling Applications (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1989).

Greenberg, C. B.

C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown From VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73–82 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, C. H.

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201–2206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, H.

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hum, H. S.-W.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ignatev, A. S.

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

Jiang, S.-J.

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

Jorgenson, G. V.

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205–214 (1986); “Thermochromic Materials and Devices: Inorganic Systems,” in C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, M.

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Khan, K. A.

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4–6 (1989); “Thermochromism of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings,” in Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. S. R.

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

Knapp, G. S.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kooy, C.

K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).

Lee, J. C.

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205–214 (1986); “Thermochromic Materials and Devices: Inorganic Systems,” in C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, Y.

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

Mokerov, V. G.

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

Moritani, Y.

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R. A.

T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nyberg, G. A.

G. A. Nyberg, R. A. Buhrman, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Reactively Evaporated VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301–302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, M.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pailly, M.

J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. E.

T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Poehler, T. O.

T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Poshin, V. G.

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

Potember, R. S.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Remke, R. L.

R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ryabova, L. A.

I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Savitskaya, Ya. S.

I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Serbinov, I. A.

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. E.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Speck, K. R.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swann, J. T.

J. T. Swann, D. J. DeSmet, “Ellipsometric Investigation of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1335–1338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Terraillon, M.

J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Terukov, E. I.

E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].

Trokman, S.

I. Balberg, S. Trokman, “High-Contrast Optical Storage in VO2 Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2111–2119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ufert, K.-D.

K.-D. Ufert, “Doping of VO2 Thin Films by Ion Implantation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42, 187–190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].

Urinov, H. O.

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van de Burg, F.

K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).

van Steensel, K.

K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).

Vasilyeva, L. L.

L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Walser, R. M.

R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.-B.

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

Zakharchenya, B. P.

A. A. Bugayev, F. A. Chudnovskii, B. P. Zakharchenya, “A Study of the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Oxides,” in Semiconductor Physics, V. M. Turkevich, V. Y. Frenkel, Eds. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1986), pp. 265–292.
[CrossRef]

Zembutsu, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4–6 (1989); “Thermochromism of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxyfluoride Coatings,” in Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

I. Balberg, S. Trokman, “High-Contrast Optical Storage in VO2 Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2111–2119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Swann, D. J. DeSmet, “Ellipsometric Investigation of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1335–1338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201–2206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

I. A. Serbinov, S. M. Babulanam, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Threshold Behaviour for the Electrical Conductivity of V2O5 Films Reduced by Heating in VacuoJ. Mater. Sci. 23, 2076–2078 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, H. Hashimoto, Y. Moritani, Y. Masuda, “Preparation of VO2 Films by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition and Dip-Coating,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 192–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

G. A. Nyberg, R. A. Buhrman, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Reactively Evaporated VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301–302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986); “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987); “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Modifications in the Phase Transition Properties of Predeposited VO2 Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1509–1512 (1984); “Reactive Evaporation of Anomalous Blue VO2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1550–1553 (1987); “Simple Resistance Model Fit to the Oxidation of a Vanadium Film into VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 123–127 (1988); “Effects of Low-Energy Low-Flux Bombardment on the Properties of VO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

T. E. Phillips, R. A. Murphy, T. O. Poehler, “Electrical Studies of Reactively Sputtered Fe-Doped VO2 Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 1113–1123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Philips Res. Rep. (1)

K. van Steensel, F. van de Burg, C. Kooy, “Thin-Film Switching Elements of VO2,” Philips Res. Rep. 22, 170–177 (1967).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Tang, P. Georgopoulos, M. E. Fine, J. E. Cohen, M. Nygren, G. S. Knapp, A. Aldred, “Local Atomic and Electronic Arrangements in WxV1−xO2,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1000–1011 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

K.-D. Ufert, “Doping of VO2 Thin Films by Ion Implantation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42, 187–190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S.-J. Jiang, C.-B. Ye, M. S. R. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Structural and Compositional Evolution During Oxidation of Vanadium Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1272, 185–196 (1990).

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. B. Goodenough, “Metallic Oxides,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 5, 145–399 (1971); “Anomalous Properties of the Vanadium Oxides,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 1, 101–138 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Adler, “Mechanism for Metal—Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (2)

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205–214 (1986); “Thermochromic Materials and Devices: Inorganic Systems,” in C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (2)

A. R. Begishev, G. B. Galiev, A. S. Ignatev, V. G. Mokerov, V. G. Poshin, “Influence of Deviations from the Crystal Lattice Periodicity in the Semiconductor—Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 20, 951–955 (1978) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 20, 1643–1650 (1978)].

E. I. Terukov, K.-D. Ufert, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1450–1451 (1976) [Fiz. Tverd. Tela Leningrad 18, 2479–2482 (1976)].

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal—Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999–1012 (1976) [Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 45, 1561–1583 (1975)].

Thin Solid Films (7)

J. Duchene, M. Terraillon, M. Pailly, “R.F. and D.C. Reactive Sputtering for Crystalline and Amorphous VO2 Thin Film Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 12, 231–234 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Serbinov, L. A. Ryabova, Ya. S. Savitskaya, “Phase Transition and Switching in Pyrolytic VO2 Films,” Thin Solid Films 27, 171–176 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Remke, R. M. Walser, R. W. Bené, “Transition Layers Between VO2 Films and Oxide Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 61, 73–82 (1979); “The Effect of Interfaces on Electronic Switching in VO2 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 97, 129–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Beresneva, S. F. Devyatova, L. L. Vasilyeva, “Polycrystalline Films of Vanadium Oxides of Controllable Composition,” Thin Solid Films 75, 47–51 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown From VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73–82 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Babkin, A. A. Charyev, A. P. Dolgarev, H. O. Urinov, “Metal—Insulator Phase Transition in VO2: Influence of Film Thickness and Substrate,” Thin Solid Films 150, 11–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hum, M. E. Sherwin, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetraisopropoxide by the Sol-Gel Process,” Thin Solid Films 165, 317–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. A. Bugayev, F. A. Chudnovskii, B. P. Zakharchenya, “A Study of the Metal—Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Oxides,” in Semiconductor Physics, V. M. Turkevich, V. Y. Frenkel, Eds. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1986), pp. 265–292.
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, Spectrally Selective Surfaces for Heating and Cooling Applications (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1989).

C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, Eds., Large-Area Chromogenics: Materials and Devices for Transmittance Control (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1990); C. G. Granqvist, “Chromogenic Materials for Transmittance Control of Large-Area Windows,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. to be published.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative thickness vs annealing time during oxidation of an initially 0.12-μm thick vanadium-based film. Dots represent measured results. The solid curve is an approximate fit to the data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron diffractograms (left) and transmission micrographs (right) for initially 0.12-μm thick vanadium-based films in as-deposited state and after annealing for the shown periods of time ta. Horizontal bars indicate the magnifications. (Note that these are different for ta < 6 h and for ta = 6 h.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral normal transmittance for an initially 0.12-μm thick vanadium-based film in as-deposited state and after annealing for the shown times. Data are given for two temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electrical conductivity vs temperature for one initially 0.12-μm thick vanadium-based film. The different curves refer to samples annealed for the shown times. Arrows denote increasing and decreasing temperature scans.

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