Abstract

We discuss the resolution limits of digital TV holography used for nondestructive testing. A phase shifting technique converts the interferometric information into a phase distribution image. Spatial low pass filtering improves the phase accuracy at the expense of spatial resolution. Experiments show that spatial details down to 2.5 × 2.5 pixels and displacement below λ/100 may be resolved.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Creath, “Phase-Shifting Speckle Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3053–3058 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams, “Digital Phase Stepping Speckle Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Sciammarella, “Computer Aided Fringe Pattern Analysis,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Congress on Experimental Mechanics (The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc., Portland, OR, 1988), pp. 668–675.
  4. K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, “Electro-Optic Holography System For Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakadate, H. Saito, “Fringe Scanning Speckle-Pattern Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2172–2180 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Owner-Pedersen, P. D. Jensen, “Computeraided Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Deformation Analysis by Fringe Manipulation,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 422–426 (1988).
  7. E. Vikhagen, “Vibration Measurement Using Phase Shifting TV-Holography and Digital Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 69, 214–218 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Vikhagen, “Nondestructive Testing By Use of TV Holography and Deformation Phase Gradient Calculation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 137–144 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117–123 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. J. Løkberg, J. T. Malmo, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials By TV Holography,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 223–228 (1988).
  11. R. K. Erf, Ed., Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (Academic, New York, 1974).
  12. E. Vikhagen, O. J. Løkberg, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials Using TV-Holography and Image Processing,” to be published.
  13. O. J. Løkberg, “Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry,” Phys. Technol. 11, 16–22 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry (Cambridge U. P., London, 1983), pp. 165–197.
  15. K. Creath, G. A. Slettemoen, “Vibration-Observation Techniques For Digital Speckle-Pattern Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1629–1636 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1987).

1990

1989

E. Vikhagen, “Vibration Measurement Using Phase Shifting TV-Holography and Digital Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 69, 214–218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Owner-Pedersen, P. D. Jensen, “Computeraided Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Deformation Analysis by Fringe Manipulation,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 422–426 (1988).

O. J. Løkberg, J. T. Malmo, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials By TV Holography,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 223–228 (1988).

1987

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, “Electro-Optic Holography System For Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams, “Digital Phase Stepping Speckle Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1980

O. J. Løkberg, “Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry,” Phys. Technol. 11, 16–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117–123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brohinsky, W. R.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, “Electro-Optic Holography System For Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Butters, J. N.

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117–123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Creath, C.

Creath, K.

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1987).

Jensen, P. D.

M. Owner-Pedersen, P. D. Jensen, “Computeraided Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Deformation Analysis by Fringe Manipulation,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 422–426 (1988).

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry (Cambridge U. P., London, 1983), pp. 165–197.

Løkberg, O. J.

O. J. Løkberg, J. T. Malmo, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials By TV Holography,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 223–228 (1988).

O. J. Løkberg, “Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry,” Phys. Technol. 11, 16–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Vikhagen, O. J. Løkberg, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials Using TV-Holography and Image Processing,” to be published.

Malmo, J. T.

O. J. Løkberg, J. T. Malmo, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials By TV Holography,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 223–228 (1988).

Nakadate, S.

Owner-Pedersen, M.

M. Owner-Pedersen, P. D. Jensen, “Computeraided Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Deformation Analysis by Fringe Manipulation,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 422–426 (1988).

Robinson, D. W.

D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams, “Digital Phase Stepping Speckle Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

Sciammarella, C. A.

C. A. Sciammarella, “Computer Aided Fringe Pattern Analysis,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Congress on Experimental Mechanics (The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc., Portland, OR, 1988), pp. 668–675.

Slettemoen, G. A.

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, “Electro-Optic Holography System For Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vikhagen, E.

E. Vikhagen, “Nondestructive Testing By Use of TV Holography and Deformation Phase Gradient Calculation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 137–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Vikhagen, “Vibration Measurement Using Phase Shifting TV-Holography and Digital Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 69, 214–218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Vikhagen, O. J. Løkberg, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials Using TV-Holography and Image Processing,” to be published.

Williams, D. C.

D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams, “Digital Phase Stepping Speckle Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wintz, P.

R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1987).

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry (Cambridge U. P., London, 1983), pp. 165–197.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nondestr. Test. Int.

O. J. Løkberg, J. T. Malmo, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials By TV Holography,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 223–228 (1988).

M. Owner-Pedersen, P. D. Jensen, “Computeraided Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Deformation Analysis by Fringe Manipulation,” Nondestr. Test. Int. 21, 422–426 (1988).

Opt. Commun.

E. Vikhagen, “Vibration Measurement Using Phase Shifting TV-Holography and Digital Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 69, 214–218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Robinson, D. C. Williams, “Digital Phase Stepping Speckle Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 57, 26–30 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, “Electro-Optic Holography System For Vibration Analysis and Nondestructive Testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117–123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Technol.

O. J. Løkberg, “Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry,” Phys. Technol. 11, 16–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry (Cambridge U. P., London, 1983), pp. 165–197.

R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1987).

R. K. Erf, Ed., Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (Academic, New York, 1974).

E. Vikhagen, O. J. Løkberg, “Detection of Defects in Composite Materials Using TV-Holography and Image Processing,” to be published.

C. A. Sciammarella, “Computer Aided Fringe Pattern Analysis,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Congress on Experimental Mechanics (The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc., Portland, OR, 1988), pp. 668–675.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic functions of TV holography (ESPI).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nondestructive testing of polymer laminate with use of TV holography. The laminate is gently heated with a blower, and inhomogeneous surface deformations reveals material defects: (a) ordinary TV holographic fringes; (b) deformation phase distribution (smoothed) calculated by SPS; and (c) deformation phase gradients.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A 3 × 3 array window for low pass filtering of deformation phases, (b) Transfer function F(u) of the window shown in (a). The transfer function depresses spatial frequencies u with periods <5 pixel distances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated deformation phases βc(x) modulus 2π along a cross section of a linearly deformed object. (b) Deformation phases βc(x) after smoothing with an 11 × 11 pixel array window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polymer laminate heated by breathing on it: (a) real time TV holographic fringes; (b) deformation phases after smoothing with an 11 × 11 pixel array window; (c) deformation phase gradients (The letters GOD JU are visible.); Note that homogenous should read homogeneous; and; (d) deformation plot along a horizontal line across the letters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rocket wing loaded with internal pressure: (a) ordinary TV holographic fringes; (b) deformation phase distribution (smoothed) calculated by SPS (in some areas we can see the honeycomb structure); and (c) a blown-up part of (b). The spatial period of the deformation structure is 5 pixel distances.

Equations (3)

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β c ( x , y ) = β ( x , y ) + β n ( x , y ) ,
SNR = n / 2 [ d β / β n ( x , y ) rms ] .
SNR = δ s / 3 · d β / β n ( x , y ) rms ,

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