Abstract

We report on a simple technique to measure experimentally the refractiυe index structure parameter Cn2 of the atmosphere along a horizontal path.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media: An Update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1442 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Shapiro, B. A. Capron, R. C. Harney, “Imaging and Target Detection with a Heterodyne-Reception Optical Radar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3292–3313 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Wyngard, Y. Izumi, S. A. Collins, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Near the Ground,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1646–1650 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Chan, N. Sugimoto, D. K. Killinger, “Short Pulse Coherent Doppler Nd:YAG LIDAR at 1.06 Mm,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper TuC7.
  5. M. L. Wesely, Z. I. Derzko, “Atmospheric Turbulence Parameters from Visual Resolution,” Appl. Opt. 14, 847–853 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Churnside, R. J. Hill, G. Conforti, A. Corsortini, “Aperture Size and Bandwidth Requirements for Measuring Strong Scintillation in the Atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4126–4132 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Labeyrie, “Stellar Interferometry Methods,” Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 77 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. P. Chan, D. K. Killinger, N. Sugimoto, “Heterodyne Doppler 1 μm Lidar Measurement of Reduced Effective Telescope Aperture Due to Atmospheric Turbulence,” submitted to Applied Optics.
  9. J. H. Churnside, M. Hardesty, NOAO/ERL Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, CO, private communication.

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media: An Update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1442 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Stellar Interferometry Methods,” Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 77 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

Capron, B. A.

Chan, K.

K. Chan, N. Sugimoto, D. K. Killinger, “Short Pulse Coherent Doppler Nd:YAG LIDAR at 1.06 Mm,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper TuC7.

Chan, K. P.

K. P. Chan, D. K. Killinger, N. Sugimoto, “Heterodyne Doppler 1 μm Lidar Measurement of Reduced Effective Telescope Aperture Due to Atmospheric Turbulence,” submitted to Applied Optics.

Churnside, J. H.

Collins, S. A.

Conforti, G.

Corsortini, A.

Derzko, Z. I.

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media: An Update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1442 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, M.

J. H. Churnside, M. Hardesty, NOAO/ERL Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, CO, private communication.

Harney, R. C.

Hill, R. J.

Izumi, Y.

Killinger, D. K.

K. Chan, N. Sugimoto, D. K. Killinger, “Short Pulse Coherent Doppler Nd:YAG LIDAR at 1.06 Mm,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper TuC7.

K. P. Chan, D. K. Killinger, N. Sugimoto, “Heterodyne Doppler 1 μm Lidar Measurement of Reduced Effective Telescope Aperture Due to Atmospheric Turbulence,” submitted to Applied Optics.

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Stellar Interferometry Methods,” Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 77 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

Sugimoto, N.

K. P. Chan, D. K. Killinger, N. Sugimoto, “Heterodyne Doppler 1 μm Lidar Measurement of Reduced Effective Telescope Aperture Due to Atmospheric Turbulence,” submitted to Applied Optics.

K. Chan, N. Sugimoto, D. K. Killinger, “Short Pulse Coherent Doppler Nd:YAG LIDAR at 1.06 Mm,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper TuC7.

Wesely, M. L.

Wyngard, J. C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media: An Update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1442 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Stellar Interferometry Methods,” Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 77 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. P. Chan, D. K. Killinger, N. Sugimoto, “Heterodyne Doppler 1 μm Lidar Measurement of Reduced Effective Telescope Aperture Due to Atmospheric Turbulence,” submitted to Applied Optics.

J. H. Churnside, M. Hardesty, NOAO/ERL Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, CO, private communication.

K. Chan, N. Sugimoto, D. K. Killinger, “Short Pulse Coherent Doppler Nd:YAG LIDAR at 1.06 Mm,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper TuC7.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an experimental setup for the observation of atmospheric turbulence using the telescope image of a distant light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured instantaneous (freeze framed) image of a LED located ~450 m away from the telescope and 10 m above the ground; and (b) 2-D power spectrum of the measured image.

Equations (3)

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I ( x , y ) = ( 1 / 2 ) { d a d cos [ ( k / f ) ( x X d + y Y d ) ] + d b d sin [ ( k / f ) ( x X d + y Y d ) ] }
a d = α i E ( X i , Y i ) E ( X i X d , Y i Y d ) × cos [ ϕ ( X i , Y i ) ϕ ( X i X d , Y i Y d ) ] ,
b d = α i E ( X i , Y i ) E ( X i X d , Y i Y d ) × sin [ ϕ ( X i , Y i ) ϕ ( X i X d , Y i Y d ) ] .

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