Abstract

We tested such properties of single-mode and multimode fiber optics that are relevant for use in a long-baseline astronomical interferometer, and we give quantitative values for modulation, transmission, and stability of the fiber optics as measured in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration. Only polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers gave satisfying results. Good preservation of modulation and ease of beam combining are strong features of these fibers, whereas the light losses that are due to imperfect coupling may present a serious problem.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, (1981), pp.285–293.
  2. P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fiber-linked version of TRIO,” in Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space (Cargése, Corsica, France, 1985), pp. 49–61.
  3. S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Single-mode fiber optics in a long-baseline interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2159–2163 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Shaklan, “Multiple beam correlation using single-mode fiber optics with application to interferometric imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1989).
  5. V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interferometry with single-mode infrared fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  6. S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fiber tests on a radiotelescope,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), 1117–1129.
  8. S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2334–2338 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Boeblingen, Germany, 1989), pp. 132–133.
  10. S. Shaklin, C. Froehly, F. Reynaud, “Stellar interferometer with multi-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  11. V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Mazé, “Using single-mode infrared fibers for interferometry, in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1237, 538-547, (1990).
  12. G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluore, Z. I. du Champ Martin, 35770 Vern-sur-Seiche, France (personal communication).

1990 (1)

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

Connes, P.

P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fiber-linked version of TRIO,” in Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space (Cargése, Corsica, France, 1985), pp. 49–61.

P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fiber tests on a radiotelescope,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), 1117–1129.

Coudé du Foresto, V.

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interferometry with single-mode infrared fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Mazé, “Using single-mode infrared fibers for interferometry, in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1237, 538-547, (1990).

du Champ Martin, Z. I.

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluore, Z. I. du Champ Martin, 35770 Vern-sur-Seiche, France (personal communication).

Facq, P.

P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fiber-linked version of TRIO,” in Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space (Cargése, Corsica, France, 1985), pp. 49–61.

Froehly, C.

P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fiber-linked version of TRIO,” in Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space (Cargése, Corsica, France, 1985), pp. 49–61.

C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, (1981), pp.285–293.

S. Shaklin, C. Froehly, F. Reynaud, “Stellar interferometer with multi-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hentschel, C.

C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Boeblingen, Germany, 1989), pp. 132–133.

Le Verre Fluore,

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluore, Z. I. du Champ Martin, 35770 Vern-sur-Seiche, France (personal communication).

Mazé, G.

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Mazé, “Using single-mode infrared fibers for interferometry, in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1237, 538-547, (1990).

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluore, Z. I. du Champ Martin, 35770 Vern-sur-Seiche, France (personal communication).

Reynaud, F.

S. Shaklin, C. Froehly, F. Reynaud, “Stellar interferometer with multi-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fiber tests on a radiotelescope,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), 1117–1129.

Roddier, F.

Shaklan, S.

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2334–2338 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Single-mode fiber optics in a long-baseline interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2159–2163 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shaklan, “Multiple beam correlation using single-mode fiber optics with application to interferometric imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1989).

Shaklin, S.

S. Shaklin, C. Froehly, F. Reynaud, “Stellar interferometer with multi-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fiber tests on a radiotelescope,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), 1117–1129.

C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Boeblingen, Germany, 1989), pp. 132–133.

S. Shaklin, C. Froehly, F. Reynaud, “Stellar interferometer with multi-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Mazé, “Using single-mode infrared fibers for interferometry, in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1237, 538-547, (1990).

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluore, Z. I. du Champ Martin, 35770 Vern-sur-Seiche, France (personal communication).

S. Shaklan, “Multiple beam correlation using single-mode fiber optics with application to interferometric imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1989).

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interferometry with single-mode infrared fibers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, (1981), pp.285–293.

P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fiber-linked version of TRIO,” in Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space (Cargése, Corsica, France, 1985), pp. 49–61.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cut through a fringe pattern as typically obtained with polarization-preserving single-mode fibers (HB600). The fiber length in each arm of the interferometer was 50 m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation of the output signal for the setup with a fiber-optic X coupler as the beam-combining device. Each arm of the interferometer consists of 50 m of polarization-preserving single-mode fiber. The fringe pattern was produced by scanning the optical path difference. The shape of the envelope is determined mainly by the transmission curve of the interference filter that defines the optical bandwidth. The asymmetry, however, typically is due to the dispersion in fibers of unequal length5 (we did not exactly equalize the input legs of the X coupler).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured wavelength dependence of the coupling ratio of the polarization-preserving polished single-mode fiber X coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stability of the fringe pattern obtained for the Mach– Zehnder interferometer setup with 50 m of polarization-preserving single-mode fibers (HB600) in each arm. Each curve represents a cut through the observed fringe pattern. The cuts through 14 subsequent exposures, separated in time by 5 s, are shown in chronological order (from bottom to top). The drifts of the fringe pattern are slow and do not exceed 1 λ/min.

Fig 6
Fig 6

Measured coupling efficiency for single-mode fibers in the optical region. The results for standard fibers (+) and polarization-preserving fibers (×) are indistinguishable within the errors of measurement. For comparison, theoretical predictions for optimum coupling are given, including and excluding losses that are due to Fresnel reflections at the fiber ends. For an aperture with central obscuration (7% of the aperture), we measured a lower coupling efficiency (*).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a, Fringe pattern as typically obtained with polarization-preserving single-mode fibers in the arms of the interferometer. b, Fringe pattern with 44 cm of gradient-index multimode fiber in each arm of the interferometer. The fiber heads were illuminated with a beam size optimized for single-mode fibers. Note the small number of speckles. c, Same as b but with the length of the fiber pieces increased to 4.8 m. While the number of speckles increases, the modulation of the fringe pattern decreases. d, Pattern observed with multimode fibers of 4.8-m length in the arms of the interferometer when the fibers are illuminated with the fully-allowed beam size. Both the individual speckles and the fringe pattern are washed out almost completely.

Tables (1)

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Table I Measured Fringe Visibility a

Equations (1)

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V = I max I min I max + I min ,

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