Abstract

The photoresponse of Schottky and np-diamond diodes has been measured from 120 to 600 nm. The ultraviolet response is 100 times the visible response.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).
  2. E. H. Rhoderick, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts (Clarendon, Oxford, 1980).
  3. P. G. Lurie, J. M. Wilson, “The Diamond Surface,” Surf. Sci. 65, 453–475 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. Prins, “Bipolar transistor action in ion implanted diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 950–952 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. R. Henning, “Optical transmission of graphite compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1201–1206 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1991

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

1986

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. F. Prins, “Bipolar transistor action in ion implanted diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 950–952 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. G. Lurie, J. M. Wilson, “The Diamond Surface,” Surf. Sci. 65, 453–475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1965

G. R. Henning, “Optical transmission of graphite compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1201–1206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Blouke, M. M.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Catura, R. C.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Culhane, J. L.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Davidsen, A. F.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Economou, N. P.

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Efremow, N. N.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, D. C.

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Henning, G. R.

G. R. Henning, “Optical transmission of graphite compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1201–1206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J. F.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, R.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Koppitz, J.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, G. A.

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lurie, P. G.

P. G. Lurie, J. M. Wilson, “The Diamond Surface,” Surf. Sci. 65, 453–475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Marchywka, M. J.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McAleese, M. D.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prins, J. F.

J. F. Prins, “Bipolar transistor action in ion implanted diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 950–952 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rhoderick, E. H.

E. H. Rhoderick, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts (Clarendon, Oxford, 1980).

Schirmer, O. F.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Seal, M.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Socker, D. G.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stern, R. A.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Walton, D. M.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Wilson, J. M.

P. G. Lurie, J. M. Wilson, “The Diamond Surface,” Surf. Sci. 65, 453–475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Winzenread, M.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Woodhouse, J. W.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. F. Prins, “Bipolar transistor action in ion implanted diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 950–952 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Devices Lett.

M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, J. W. Woodhouse, M. D. McAleese, M. J. Marchywka, D. G. Socker, J. F. Hochedez, “Diamond Cold Cathodes,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 12, 456–457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. R. Henning, “Optical transmission of graphite compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1201–1206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Seal, “Pseudo-Jahn-Teller optical absorption of isolated nitrogen in diamond,” J. Phys. C 19, 1123–1133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

N. N. Efremow, M. W. Geis, D. C. Flanders, G. A. Lincoln, N. P. Economou, “Ion-beam assisted etching of diamond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 416–418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. A. Stern, R. C. Catura, R. Kimble, A. F. Davidsen, M. Winzenread, M. M. Blouke, R. Hayes, D. M. Walton, J. L. Culhane, “Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet response of CCD detectors,” Opt. Eng. 26, 875–883 (1987).

Surf. Sci.

P. G. Lurie, J. M. Wilson, “The Diamond Surface,” Surf. Sci. 65, 453–475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. H. Rhoderick, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts (Clarendon, Oxford, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device cross sections: (a) structure 1, a Schottky diode; (b) structure 2, containing layers of graphitic and ion-damaged diamond between the bulk diamond and metal, (c) structure 3, an ion-implanted and etched diode, which is similar to structure 2 but without the graphite layer, which was removed by etching prior to metal deposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoresponse contour plot. The axes are labeled in micrometers from an arbitrary origin. Contour labels indicate the fraction of maximum observed current. There is a clear, single point of maximum responsivity and several small areas of low responsivity. The diffuse response is attributed to scattered light from the back contact; 10-μm × 10-μm pixels have been smoothed to render this profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ultraviolet response spectra: (a) The near-UV response of structures 1 (dashed curve), 2 (dotted curve), and 3 (dotted-dashed curve). The data are arbitrarily normalized in units of current per incident photon. (b) The VUV response of structures 1 (dashed curve) and 2 (dotted curve) under flat-field illumination. Caution should be used in attempting to join (a) and (b) because of the differences in illumination conditions and the lack of an absolute calibration of the near-UV results. The symbols indicate the intervals between data points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized effect of the reverse bias. The effect of the reverse bias on the photocurrent is shown at 125 nm (solid curve), 140 nm (dashed curve), 160 nm (dotted-dashed curve), and 200 nm (three dots, dashed curve). Each curve is normalized to its zero-bias value. The curves have been smoothed with a moving average filter to make the trends clearer at the excess reverse biases. The 200-nm curve is noisier than the others because of the low absolute value of the response at this wavelength. In all cases, at biases that are greater than ∼ 5 V, the noise caused by reverse current leakage is much greater than the photocurrent. The symbols indicate the intervals between data points.

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