Abstract

One can view our comprehension of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, particularly that by colloidal dispersions of metal sols, as the merging of two traditions in light-scattering theory and practice. One of these originated with Michael Faraday's work on brilliantly colored metal sols, which was taken up by Richard Zsigmondy and then by Gustav Mie, who accounted for the colors by electromagnetic-scattering theory. The other tradition starts with John Tyndall's work with aerosols, which stimulated Lord Rayleigh's entry into the field. Lord Rayleigh was perplexed by observations made with sulfur hydrosols, which in turn were explored by C. V. Raman. Raman's extensive work in light scattering led to his subsequent discovery of the Raman effect. These two traditions were then intertwined when it was shown that the same physical effect that caused Faraday's sols to exhibit their brilliant colors was also the origin of the enhancement of Raman signals from molecules adsorbed on the metal particles that compose these sols.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. See the perspicuous article by N. A. Logan, “Survey of some early studies of the scattering of plane waves by a sphere,” Proc. IEEE 53, 773–785 (1965) for the work of L. V. Lorenz and other early workers.Reprinted in Selected Papers on Light Scattering, Part 1, M. Kerker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.951 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. For biographies see Dictionary of Scientific Biography, C. C. Gillispie, ed. (Scribners, New York, 1970–1976), Vols. 1–14.
  3. Some of the material in this paper appears in M. Kerker, “From stained glass and blue skies to surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. R. Inst. GB 61, 229–250 (1989).
  4. M. Faraday, “Experimental relations of gold (and other metals) to light,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 147, 145–181 (1857).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Turkevich, J. Hillier, “Electron microscopy of colloidal systems,” Anal. Chem. 21, 475–485 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Tyndall, “On the action of rays of high refrangibility upon gaseous matter,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 160, 333–365 (1870).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Tyndall, “On the blue colour of the sky, the polarization of skylight, and on the polarization of light by cloudy matter generally,” Proc. R. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).
  8. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag. 41, 447–454 (1871).
  9. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the dispersal of light by a dielectric cylinder,” Philos. Mag. 36, 365–376 (1918).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 2–8 (1982);Appl. Opt. 20, 533–539 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the electromagnetic theory of light,” Philos. Mag. 12, 81–101 (1881).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. K. LaMer, M. Kerker, “Light scattering,” Sci. Am.69–76 (Feb.1953).
  13. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “The incidence of light upon a transparent sphere of dimensions comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 25–46 (1910).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. A. Keen, A. W. Porter, “On the diffraction of light by particles comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London 89, 370–376 (1913, 1914).
  15. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the diffraction of light by spheres of small relative index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 219–225 (1914).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. V. Raman, B. Ray, “On the transmission colours of sulphur suspensions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 100, 102–109 (1921).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Ray, “On the colour and polarization of light scattered by sulphur suspensions,” Proc. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci. 7, 1–12 (1921).
  18. C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. I. Jeanmaire, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman electrochemistry. Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1–20 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. G. Albrecht, J. A. Creighton, “Anomalously intense Raman spectra of pyridine at a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5215–5217 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Zsigmondy, P. A. Thiessen, Das Kolloide Gold (Akademische Verlag, Leipzig, 1912).
  24. G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik Truber medien, special kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 26, 329–445 (1908).
  25. W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids,” Phys. Rev. 111, 1067–1077 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Kerker, “An electromagnetic model for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on metal colloids,” Acc. Chem. Res. 17, 271–277 (1984).
    [Crossref]

1989 (1)

Some of the material in this paper appears in M. Kerker, “From stained glass and blue skies to surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. R. Inst. GB 61, 229–250 (1989).

1984 (1)

M. Kerker, “An electromagnetic model for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on metal colloids,” Acc. Chem. Res. 17, 271–277 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 2–8 (1982);Appl. Opt. 20, 533–539 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

D. I. Jeanmaire, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman electrochemistry. Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

M. G. Albrecht, J. A. Creighton, “Anomalously intense Raman spectra of pyridine at a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5215–5217 (1977).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

See the perspicuous article by N. A. Logan, “Survey of some early studies of the scattering of plane waves by a sphere,” Proc. IEEE 53, 773–785 (1965) for the work of L. V. Lorenz and other early workers.Reprinted in Selected Papers on Light Scattering, Part 1, M. Kerker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.951 (1989).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids,” Phys. Rev. 111, 1067–1077 (1958).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

V. K. LaMer, M. Kerker, “Light scattering,” Sci. Am.69–76 (Feb.1953).

1949 (1)

J. Turkevich, J. Hillier, “Electron microscopy of colloidal systems,” Anal. Chem. 21, 475–485 (1949).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[Crossref]

1921 (2)

C. V. Raman, B. Ray, “On the transmission colours of sulphur suspensions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 100, 102–109 (1921).
[Crossref]

B. Ray, “On the colour and polarization of light scattered by sulphur suspensions,” Proc. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci. 7, 1–12 (1921).

1918 (1)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the dispersal of light by a dielectric cylinder,” Philos. Mag. 36, 365–376 (1918).
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the diffraction of light by spheres of small relative index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 219–225 (1914).
[Crossref]

1910 (1)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “The incidence of light upon a transparent sphere of dimensions comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 25–46 (1910).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik Truber medien, special kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 26, 329–445 (1908).

1881 (1)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the electromagnetic theory of light,” Philos. Mag. 12, 81–101 (1881).
[Crossref]

1871 (1)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag. 41, 447–454 (1871).

1870 (1)

J. Tyndall, “On the action of rays of high refrangibility upon gaseous matter,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 160, 333–365 (1870).
[Crossref]

1869 (1)

J. Tyndall, “On the blue colour of the sky, the polarization of skylight, and on the polarization of light by cloudy matter generally,” Proc. R. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).

1857 (1)

M. Faraday, “Experimental relations of gold (and other metals) to light,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 147, 145–181 (1857).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. G. Albrecht, J. A. Creighton, “Anomalously intense Raman spectra of pyridine at a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5215–5217 (1977).
[Crossref]

Blatchford, C. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
[Crossref]

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. G. Albrecht, J. A. Creighton, “Anomalously intense Raman spectra of pyridine at a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5215–5217 (1977).
[Crossref]

Doyle, W. T.

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids,” Phys. Rev. 111, 1067–1077 (1958).
[Crossref]

Faraday, M.

M. Faraday, “Experimental relations of gold (and other metals) to light,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 147, 145–181 (1857).
[Crossref]

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hillier, J.

J. Turkevich, J. Hillier, “Electron microscopy of colloidal systems,” Anal. Chem. 21, 475–485 (1949).
[Crossref]

Jeanmaire, D. I.

D. I. Jeanmaire, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman electrochemistry. Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

Keen, B. A.

B. A. Keen, A. W. Porter, “On the diffraction of light by particles comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London 89, 370–376 (1913, 1914).

Kerker, M.

Some of the material in this paper appears in M. Kerker, “From stained glass and blue skies to surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. R. Inst. GB 61, 229–250 (1989).

M. Kerker, “An electromagnetic model for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on metal colloids,” Acc. Chem. Res. 17, 271–277 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. K. LaMer, M. Kerker, “Light scattering,” Sci. Am.69–76 (Feb.1953).

LaMer, V. K.

V. K. LaMer, M. Kerker, “Light scattering,” Sci. Am.69–76 (Feb.1953).

Logan, N. A.

See the perspicuous article by N. A. Logan, “Survey of some early studies of the scattering of plane waves by a sphere,” Proc. IEEE 53, 773–785 (1965) for the work of L. V. Lorenz and other early workers.Reprinted in Selected Papers on Light Scattering, Part 1, M. Kerker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.951 (1989).
[Crossref]

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik Truber medien, special kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 26, 329–445 (1908).

Porter, A. W.

B. A. Keen, A. W. Porter, “On the diffraction of light by particles comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London 89, 370–376 (1913, 1914).

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[Crossref]

C. V. Raman, B. Ray, “On the transmission colours of sulphur suspensions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 100, 102–109 (1921).
[Crossref]

Ray, B.

C. V. Raman, B. Ray, “On the transmission colours of sulphur suspensions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 100, 102–109 (1921).
[Crossref]

B. Ray, “On the colour and polarization of light scattered by sulphur suspensions,” Proc. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci. 7, 1–12 (1921).

Strutt, J. W.

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the dispersal of light by a dielectric cylinder,” Philos. Mag. 36, 365–376 (1918).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the diffraction of light by spheres of small relative index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 219–225 (1914).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “The incidence of light upon a transparent sphere of dimensions comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 25–46 (1910).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the electromagnetic theory of light,” Philos. Mag. 12, 81–101 (1881).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag. 41, 447–454 (1871).

Thiessen, P. A.

R. Zsigmondy, P. A. Thiessen, Das Kolloide Gold (Akademische Verlag, Leipzig, 1912).

Turkevich, J.

J. Turkevich, J. Hillier, “Electron microscopy of colloidal systems,” Anal. Chem. 21, 475–485 (1949).
[Crossref]

Tyndall, J.

J. Tyndall, “On the action of rays of high refrangibility upon gaseous matter,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 160, 333–365 (1870).
[Crossref]

J. Tyndall, “On the blue colour of the sky, the polarization of skylight, and on the polarization of light by cloudy matter generally,” Proc. R. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).

Van Duyne, R. P.

D. I. Jeanmaire, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman electrochemistry. Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

Young, A.

A. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 2–8 (1982);Appl. Opt. 20, 533–539 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zsigmondy, R.

R. Zsigmondy, P. A. Thiessen, Das Kolloide Gold (Akademische Verlag, Leipzig, 1912).

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

M. Kerker, “An electromagnetic model for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on metal colloids,” Acc. Chem. Res. 17, 271–277 (1984).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Turkevich, J. Hillier, “Electron microscopy of colloidal systems,” Anal. Chem. 21, 475–485 (1949).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik Truber medien, special kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 26, 329–445 (1908).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. G. Albrecht, J. A. Creighton, “Anomalously intense Raman spectra of pyridine at a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5215–5217 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–801 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

D. I. Jeanmaire, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman electrochemistry. Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (3)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the electromagnetic theory of light,” Philos. Mag. 12, 81–101 (1881).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag. 41, 447–454 (1871).

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the dispersal of light by a dielectric cylinder,” Philos. Mag. 36, 365–376 (1918).
[Crossref]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (2)

J. Tyndall, “On the action of rays of high refrangibility upon gaseous matter,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 160, 333–365 (1870).
[Crossref]

M. Faraday, “Experimental relations of gold (and other metals) to light,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 147, 145–181 (1857).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids,” Phys. Rev. 111, 1067–1077 (1958).
[Crossref]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 2–8 (1982);Appl. Opt. 20, 533–539 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

See the perspicuous article by N. A. Logan, “Survey of some early studies of the scattering of plane waves by a sphere,” Proc. IEEE 53, 773–785 (1965) for the work of L. V. Lorenz and other early workers.Reprinted in Selected Papers on Light Scattering, Part 1, M. Kerker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.951 (1989).
[Crossref]

Proc. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci. (1)

B. Ray, “On the colour and polarization of light scattered by sulphur suspensions,” Proc. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci. 7, 1–12 (1921).

Proc. R. Inst. GB (1)

Some of the material in this paper appears in M. Kerker, “From stained glass and blue skies to surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. R. Inst. GB 61, 229–250 (1989).

Proc. R. Soc. London (2)

J. Tyndall, “On the blue colour of the sky, the polarization of skylight, and on the polarization of light by cloudy matter generally,” Proc. R. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).

B. A. Keen, A. W. Porter, “On the diffraction of light by particles comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London 89, 370–376 (1913, 1914).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (4)

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “On the diffraction of light by spheres of small relative index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 219–225 (1914).
[Crossref]

C. V. Raman, B. Ray, “On the transmission colours of sulphur suspensions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 100, 102–109 (1921).
[Crossref]

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[Crossref]

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), “The incidence of light upon a transparent sphere of dimensions comparable with the wavelength,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 25–46 (1910).
[Crossref]

Sci. Am. (1)

V. K. LaMer, M. Kerker, “Light scattering,” Sci. Am.69–76 (Feb.1953).

Other (2)

For biographies see Dictionary of Scientific Biography, C. C. Gillispie, ed. (Scribners, New York, 1970–1976), Vols. 1–14.

R. Zsigmondy, P. A. Thiessen, Das Kolloide Gold (Akademische Verlag, Leipzig, 1912).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q sca = 8 3 α 4 | 1 + 2 | 2 ,
Q abs = 4 α Im ( 1 + 2 ) ,

Metrics