Abstract

The optical-limiting behavior of a series of trans-α, ω-diphenyl polyene compounds was observed in solutions of chloroform. The influence of planarity, the substitution of donor and acceptor groups, and the extent of π-electron delocalization on the nonlinear thresholds of the diphenyl polyenes in an optical-limiting geometry were examined. A saturation effect of optical-limiting nonlinear thresholds, consistent with the theoretical work, was observed at 10–11 π-electron bonds. The temporal profiles of the transmitted laser pulses and the power dependence of the nonlinear thresholds as a function of spot size and wavelength were examined. These examinations led to the conclusion that the predominant nonlinear mechanism was quasi-steady-state self-focusing. Nonlinear thresholds an order of magnitude lower, and thus effective n2 and χ3 values an order of magnitude higher, than the well-known self-focusing medium CS2 were observed. Our studies demonstrate that this series of polyenes consists of efficient broadband nonresonant optical-limiting materials.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials ACS Symp. Ser., 233, 1–212 (1985).
  2. D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.
  3. G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).
  4. M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. C. Rustagi, J. Ducuing, “Third-order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” J. Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. P. Agarwal, C. Flytzanis, “Derealization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–369 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, “Third order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5104 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. R. Holtom, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of several alpha, omega-diphenylpolyenes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).
  9. J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” Chem. Phys. 67, 446–457 (1977).
  11. L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 93–102 (1989).
  15. D. L. Beveridge, H. H. Jaffe, “The electronic structure and spectra of cis- and trans-stilbene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5340–5342 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).
  18. M. M. T. Loy, Y. R. Shen, “Small-scale filaments in liquids and tracks of moving foci,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 994–997 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. H. Marbauger, “Self-focusing theory,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, S. Stenholm, eds., (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 35–110.
    [Crossref]
  21. M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
    [Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials ACS Symp. Ser., 233, 1–212 (1985).

1983 (1)

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” Chem. Phys. 67, 446–457 (1977).

1976 (1)

G. P. Agarwal, C. Flytzanis, “Derealization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–369 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (3)

J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, “Third order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5104 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. C. Rustagi, J. Ducuing, “Third-order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” J. Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
[Crossref]

M. M. T. Loy, Y. R. Shen, “Small-scale filaments in liquids and tracks of moving foci,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 994–997 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

D. L. Beveridge, H. H. Jaffe, “The electronic structure and spectra of cis- and trans-stilbene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5340–5342 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. P.

G. P. Agarwal, C. Flytzanis, “Derealization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–369 (1976).
[Crossref]

Beratan, D. N.

D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
[Crossref]

Beveridge, D. L.

D. L. Beveridge, H. H. Jaffe, “The electronic structure and spectra of cis- and trans-stilbene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5340–5342 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blankenship, R. E.

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.

Clark, W. W.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

Clemente, E.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ducuing, J.

K. C. Rustagi, J. Ducuing, “Third-order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” J. Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, “Third order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5104 (1974).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, M.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

G. P. Agarwal, C. Flytzanis, “Derealization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–369 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ghosal, S.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

Giordmaine, J. A.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
[Crossref]

Hermann, J. P.

J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, “Third order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5104 (1974).
[Crossref]

Holtom, G. R.

G. R. Holtom, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of several alpha, omega-diphenylpolyenes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).

Hurst, G. J. B.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jaffe, H. H.

D. L. Beveridge, H. H. Jaffe, “The electronic structure and spectra of cis- and trans-stilbene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5340–5342 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, W.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kleinschmidt, J.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

Loy, M. M. T.

M. M. T. Loy, Y. R. Shen, “Small-scale filaments in liquids and tracks of moving foci,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 994–997 (1969).
[Crossref]

Maier, M.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
[Crossref]

Mansour, N.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 93–102 (1989).

Marbauger, J. H.

J. H. Marbauger, “Self-focusing theory,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, S. Stenholm, eds., (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 35–110.
[Crossref]

Miller, M. J.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

Natarajan, L. V.

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

Onuchic, J. N.

D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
[Crossref]

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” Chem. Phys. 67, 446–457 (1977).

Perry, J. W.

D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rentsch, S.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, K. C.

K. C. Rustagi, J. Ducuing, “Third-order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” J. Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G. J.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

Samoc, M.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sharp, E. J.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

Shen, Y. R.

M. M. T. Loy, Y. R. Shen, “Small-scale filaments in liquids and tracks of moving foci,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 994–997 (1969).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

Singh, B. P.

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 93–102 (1989).

Stein, F. M.

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tottleben, W.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

Tufariello, J. J.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 93–102 (1989).

Wilhelmi, B.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. J.

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials ACS Symp. Ser., 233, 1–212 (1985).

Williams, W. E.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

Woods, G. L.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

Zhao, M. T.

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zyss, J.

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” Chem. Phys. 67, 446–457 (1977).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. V. Natarajan, F. M. Stein, R. E. Blankenship, R. Chang, “Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization of diphenyl polyenes in stretched polyethylene films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 525–528 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. P. Agarwal, C. Flytzanis, “Derealization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–369 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, “Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenechloroform solutions; explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. L. Beveridge, H. H. Jaffe, “The electronic structure and spectra of cis- and trans-stilbene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5340–5342 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, “Third order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100–5104 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Study of third order microscopic optical nonlinearities in sequentially built and systematically derivitized structures,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 7916–7920 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clemente, “Ab initio analytical polarizability of polyenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–390 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

K. C. Rustagi, J. Ducuing, “Third-order optical polarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” J. Opt. Commun. 10, 258–261 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

D. N. Beratan, J. N. Onuchic, J. W. Perry, “Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2696–2698 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, J. J. Tufariello, “Optical nonlinearities of organometallic structures: aryl and vinyl derivatives of ferrocene,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847–2851 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials ACS Symp. Ser. (1)

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials ACS Symp. Ser., 233, 1–212 (1985).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, “Laser-induced damage and the role of self-focusing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1133–1144 (1989).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Backward stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. 177, 580–599 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. M. T. Loy, Y. R. Shen, “Small-scale filaments in liquids and tracks of moving foci,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 994–997 (1969).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. H. Marbauger, “Self-focusing theory,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, S. Stenholm, eds., (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 35–110.
[Crossref]

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

N. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 93–102 (1989).

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.

G. L. Woods, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Op. Instrum. Eng.1105, 154–180, (1989).

G. R. Holtom, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of several alpha, omega-diphenylpolyenes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus used to examine the nonlinear thresholds of a series of diphenyl polyene solutions in an optical-limiting geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance versus incident energy of a sample polyene solution showing 10 pulses for each given incident energy (λ = 532 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear response of different-length π-conjugated polyenes as a function of incident energy (λ = 532 nm). All materials are in chloroform at a molarity of 2.5 × 10−3: ○, diphenylbutadiene; □, diphenyloctatetraene; ⋄, β-carotene; X, trans-stilbene; +, diphenylhexatriene.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of the number of π-electron bonds on the observed nonlinear thresholds and energy densities. These data are summarized from Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized transmittance versus incident energy for a series of trans-stilbene solutions (λ = 532 nm). As the solutions become more concentrated, the onset of nonlinear behavior decreases. The data are listed in terms of molarity in chloroform: ○, 2.3 × 10−4 M; □, 3.9 × 10−4 M; ⋄, 2.3 × 10−3 M; X, 2.3 × 10−2 M; +, 0.111 M; △, 0.3 M; ●, 0.68 M.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of behavior of CS2 (●) and neat cis-stilbene (□). Both materials show strong self-focusing characteristics (λ = 532 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of temporal profiles of incident and transmitted pulses of (a) CS2 and (b) neat cis-stilbene (λ = 532 nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Diphenyl Polyenes

Tables Icon

Table II Effective Values of Nonlinear Refractive Index n2, and χ(3) of Polyenes

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 = 3.77 c λ 2 32 π 2 P ( cm 3 / erg ) ,
n = n 0 + ½ n 2 [ E ( t ) ] 2 ,
χ 1111 ( 3 ) = n 0 n 2 12 π ( cm 3 / erg ) .

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