Abstract

Electronic holography and speckle interferometry are combined with femtosecond gating techniques to form images of absorbing structures embedded in organic tissue. The method takes advantage of the inherent instability of living tissue.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983), see especially Chap. 3.
  2. J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.
  3. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).
  6. J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17-3, 351–356 (May/June1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Ultrashort Light Pulses (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Chap. 3.
  9. Y. N. Denisyuk, D. I. Staselko, R. R. Herke, “On the effect of time and spatial coherence of radiation source on the image produced by a hologram,” presented at the Conference on Applications of Holography, Besançon, 21 July 1970.
  10. N. Abramson, “Light-in-flight recording by holography,” Opt. Lett. 3, 121–123 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Abramson, “Light-in-flight recording: high-speed holographic motion pictures of ultrafast phenomenon,” Appl. Opt. 22, 215–232 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four-wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).
  13. N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, “Three-dimensional confocal imaging of objects embedded within thick diffusing media,” accepted for Appl. Opt. 30, 1796–1803 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Leith, C. Palermo, “Some filtering operations using coherent optics,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Generalized Networks, New York (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1966), pp. 743–751.

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17-3, 351–356 (May/June1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, N.

Abramson, N. H.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Antonetti, A.

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Chen, Y.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Denisyuk, Y. N.

Y. N. Denisyuk, D. I. Staselko, R. R. Herke, “On the effect of time and spatial coherence of radiation source on the image produced by a hologram,” presented at the Conference on Applications of Holography, Besançon, 21 July 1970.

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

Gerritsen, H. J.

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four-wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).

Grillon, G.

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17-3, 351–356 (May/June1990).
[CrossRef]

Herke, R. R.

Y. N. Denisyuk, D. I. Staselko, R. R. Herke, “On the effect of time and spatial coherence of radiation source on the image produced by a hologram,” presented at the Conference on Applications of Holography, Besançon, 21 July 1970.

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983), see especially Chap. 3.

Kruger, R. A.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17-3, 351–356 (May/June1990).
[CrossRef]

Lecarpentier, Y.

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Lin, W. Z.

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

Lopez, J.

Lopez, J. L.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Martin, J.

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattick, A. T.

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palermo, C.

E. Leith, C. Palermo, “Some filtering operations using coherent optics,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Generalized Networks, New York (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1966), pp. 743–751.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spears, K. G.

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staselko, D. I.

Y. N. Denisyuk, D. I. Staselko, R. R. Herke, “On the effect of time and spatial coherence of radiation source on the image produced by a hologram,” presented at the Conference on Applications of Holography, Besançon, 21 July 1970.

Stern, D.

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

Valdmanis, J.

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983), see especially Chap. 3.

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

D. Stern, W. Z. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond optical ranging of corneal incision depth,” Inv. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, 99 (1989).

Med. Phys. (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17-3, 351–356 (May/June1990).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser sterometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

See, for example, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Ultrashort Light Pulses (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Chap. 3.

Y. N. Denisyuk, D. I. Staselko, R. R. Herke, “On the effect of time and spatial coherence of radiation source on the image produced by a hologram,” presented at the Conference on Applications of Holography, Besançon, 21 July 1970.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983), see especially Chap. 3.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 54.

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four-wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).

E. Leith, C. Palermo, “Some filtering operations using coherent optics,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Generalized Networks, New York (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1966), pp. 743–751.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Spatial frequency spectrum of object and reference beams along the fx axis, (b) Spatial frequency spectrum of a recorded hologram along the fx axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system for hologram construction: BS, beam splitter; delay, system for the optical path delay of the reference beam; SF, spatial filter; BC, beam combiner; BWL, bandwidth-limiting spatial filter; relay, relay lens system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of confocal and simple projection methods for imaging into inhomogeneities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results: (a) single exposure, (b) averaging of 75 exposures.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = | u 1 + u 2 + u r | 2 = | u 2 | 2 + | u r | 2 + u r u 1 * + u r * u 1 ,
R = u r * u 1 / ( | u 2 | 2 + | u r | 2 + u r * u 1 + u r u 1 * ) .
| u T | 2 = | u 2 i | 2 = C + | u 2 | 2 ,
I i = C + | u 2 | 2 + | u r | 2 + u r s 0 n * + u r * s 0 n ,
I im = | n | 2 ¯ s 0 2 ,
I = | n k s 0 | 2 = s 0 2 | n k | 2 = s 0 2 | n T | 2 .
I = s 0 2 | n T | 2 * | h | 2 ,
I = C + | u 2 | 2 + | u r | 2 + 2 u r s 0 Re n ,
I = | u 2 | 2 + 2 u r s 0 Re n .
( I i ) 2 = | u 2 | 4 ¯ + 4 u r 2 s 0 2 ( Re n ) 2 ¯ + 4 u r s 0 | u 2 | 2 Re n ¯ ,
I = | u 2 | 2 2 u r a 0 Re n .
I = 4 u r s 0 Re n .

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