Abstract

Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a thermally induced phase transition from a semiconductor to a metal near 68°C. The deposition of VO2 thin films by using a process of activated-reactive evaporation provides high-quality VO2-film material; specifically, the semiconducting phase-extinction coefficient in the infrared is reduced by an order of magnitude without detrimental effect on the corresponding metal phase coefficient. The materials improvement significantly enhances accessible performance limits for optical switching devices, as compared with VO2 thin films deposited by both standard reactive and ion-assisted reactive evaporation.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show metal-to-insulator transitions at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of the crystallo-graphic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490–500 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. G. Granqvist, “Chromogenic materials for transmittance control of large area windows,” CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (to be published).
  4. F. C. Case, “Effects of low-energy low-flux ion bombardment on the properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. C. Case, “Influence of ion beam parameters on the electrical and optical properties of ion-assisted reactively evaporated vanadium dioxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. C. Case, “Total transmission of anomalous blue VO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1803–1806 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Thornton, “Plasma-assisted deposition processes: theory, mechanisms and applications,” Thin Solid Films 107, 3–19 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. F. Bunshah, C. V. Deshpandey, “Plasma assisted physical vapor deposition: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 553–560 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. F. Bongers, “Anisotropy of the electrical conductivity of vanadium oxide single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 3, 275–278 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. B. MacChesney, H. J. Guggenheim, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide single crystals containing selected impurity ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 225–229 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. E. Case, “Method for predicting and achieving highest optical switch performance from thin-film bistate materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 71 (1985).

1989

F. C. Case, “Effects of low-energy low-flux ion bombardment on the properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

F. C. Case, “Influence of ion beam parameters on the electrical and optical properties of ion-assisted reactively evaporated vanadium dioxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. F. Bunshah, C. V. Deshpandey, “Plasma assisted physical vapor deposition: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 553–560 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Case, “Method for predicting and achieving highest optical switch performance from thin-film bistate materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 71 (1985).

1983

J. A. Thornton, “Plasma-assisted deposition processes: theory, mechanisms and applications,” Thin Solid Films 107, 3–19 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of the crystallo-graphic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490–500 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. B. MacChesney, H. J. Guggenheim, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide single crystals containing selected impurity ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 225–229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

P. F. Bongers, “Anisotropy of the electrical conductivity of vanadium oxide single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 3, 275–278 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show metal-to-insulator transitions at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Achete, C.

C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bongers, P. F.

P. F. Bongers, “Anisotropy of the electrical conductivity of vanadium oxide single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 3, 275–278 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bunshah, R. F.

R. F. Bunshah, C. V. Deshpandey, “Plasma assisted physical vapor deposition: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 553–560 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Case, F. C.

F. C. Case, “Effects of low-energy low-flux ion bombardment on the properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Total transmission of anomalous blue VO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1803–1806 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Case, “Influence of ion beam parameters on the electrical and optical properties of ion-assisted reactively evaporated vanadium dioxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Case, W. E.

W. E. Case, “Method for predicting and achieving highest optical switch performance from thin-film bistate materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 71 (1985).

Deshpandey, C. V.

R. F. Bunshah, C. V. Deshpandey, “Plasma assisted physical vapor deposition: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 553–560 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goodenough, J. B.

J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of the crystallo-graphic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490–500 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist, “Chromogenic materials for transmittance control of large area windows,” CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (to be published).

Guggenheim, H. J.

J. B. MacChesney, H. J. Guggenheim, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide single crystals containing selected impurity ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 225–229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Losch, W.

C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

J. B. MacChesney, H. J. Guggenheim, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide single crystals containing selected impurity ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 225–229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Morin, F. J.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show metal-to-insulator transitions at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Niehus, H.

C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “Plasma-assisted deposition processes: theory, mechanisms and applications,” Thin Solid Films 107, 3–19 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

W. E. Case, “Method for predicting and achieving highest optical switch performance from thin-film bistate materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 71 (1985).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

J. B. MacChesney, H. J. Guggenheim, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide single crystals containing selected impurity ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 225–229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of the crystallo-graphic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490–500 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

F. C. Case, “Effects of low-energy low-flux ion bombardment on the properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1194–1198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Influence of ion beam parameters on the electrical and optical properties of ion-assisted reactively evaporated vanadium dioxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1766 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Bunshah, C. V. Deshpandey, “Plasma assisted physical vapor deposition: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 553–560 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

C. Achete, H. Niehus, W. Losch, “Silicide formation of thin vanadium layers in ultrahigh vacuum studied by ISS, AES, LEED and SIMS,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1327–1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show metal-to-insulator transitions at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

P. F. Bongers, “Anisotropy of the electrical conductivity of vanadium oxide single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 3, 275–278 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. A. Thornton, “Plasma-assisted deposition processes: theory, mechanisms and applications,” Thin Solid Films 107, 3–19 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. G. Granqvist, “Chromogenic materials for transmittance control of large area windows,” CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature dependence of transmission for VO2 thin films prepared by reactive evaporation and ARE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semiconductor- and metal-state extinction coefficients at 3.4 μm as functions of anode current at 2.60- and 2.88-mbar pressure during activated-reactive evaporation of VO2 thin films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Semiconductor- and metal-state extinction coefficients as functions of wavelength for VO2 thin films deposited with and without activation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-ray diffraction data for VO2 thin films deposited with and without activation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Semiconductor- and metal-state extinction coefficients as functions of wavelength for activated films deposited upon sapphire and silicon substrates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependence of resistivity for a VO2 thin film deposited by ARE.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of Properties for VO2 Thin Films Deposited by Standard, Activated, and Ion-Assisted Reactive Evaporation

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of Optical Performance for Two Multilayers Containing VO2 With ks = 0.02 and 0.002a

Equations (2)

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n m c
k m c

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