Abstract

Transparent and optical-grade TiO2 coatings were prepared by sol-gel spinning and ion-beam sputtering techniques. We investigate process parameters for the fabrication of sol-gel spin-coated TiO2 films exhibiting high optical quality comparable with that of ion-beam-sputtered TiO2 films. X-ray diffraction studies showed the sol-gel-deposited films to be amorphous for heat treatments below 350° C, whereas the ion-beam-sputtered films were slightly crystalline and exhibited the anatase structure. The refractive index and the extinction coefficient were evaluated from transmittance characteristics in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. Transmission spectra and ellipsometric measurements showed that spin-coated films were essentially optically equivalent to those prepared by ion-beam sputter deposition.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Schroeder, “Oxide layers Deposited from organic solutions” in Physics of Thin Films,G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, pp. 88–141.
  2. C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 171.
  3. I. M. Thomas, “Optical coatings by the sol-gel process,” Opt. News 12 (8), 18–22 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Bennet, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Faughan, R. S. Crandall, “Electrochromic displays based on WO3,” in Display Devices,J. I. Pankove, ed., Vol. 40 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 181.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Yoldas, “Investigations of porous oxides as an antireflective coating for glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1425–1429 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle-Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Dislich, “Thin films from the sol-gel process,” in Sol-Gel Technology for Thin Films,L. Klein, ed. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988), p. 67.
  11. H. Dislich, P. Hinz, “History and principles of the sol-gel process and some new multicomponent oxide coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 11–16 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Phillips, J. W. Dodds, “Optical interference coatings prepared from solution,” Appl. Opt. 20, 40–47 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. Martin, “Review: ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effect of oxygen in ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. M. Thomas, “Single-layer TiO2 and multilayer TiO2-SiO2 optical coatings prepared from coloidal suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4688–4691 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Haisma, “Optical thin films produced by non vacuum techniques,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2666–2673 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: a study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. E. Yoldas, “Deposition and properties of optical oxide coatings from polymerized solutions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2960–2964 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Dislich, E. Hussmann, “Amorphous and crystalline dip coatings obtained from organometallic solutions,” Thin Solid Films 77, 129–139 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. S. Sokolova, “Internal stresses in thin oxide films deposited from hydrolyzable solutions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 15–15 (1974).
  23. H. Schroeder, “Properties and applications of oxide layer deposited on glass from organic solutions,” Opt. Acta 9, 249–254 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Yoldas, “Preparation of glass and ceramics from metal organic compounds,” J. Mater. Sci. 12, 1203–1208 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. L. Woodhead, “Sol-gel processes for titania-based products,” Sci. Ceram. 9, 27–29 (1977).
  26. B. E. Yoldas, D. P. Partlow, “Wide spectrum antireflective coating for fused silica and other glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1418–1424 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. M. Mattox, “Surface cleaning in thin film technology,” Thin Solid Films 53, 81–96 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, London, 1976).
  29. F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Aktulga, “Optical parameters of a weakly absorbing film by spectrophotometric transmittance measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Istanbul University, Istanbul, 1983).
  31. H. Demiryont, J. R. Site, K. M. Geib, “Effects of oxygen content on the optical properties of tantalum oxide films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 490–495 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (3)

R. J. Martin, “Review: ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Thomas, “Optical coatings by the sol-gel process,” Opt. News 12 (8), 18–22 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1984 (4)

1982 (2)

B. E. Yoldas, “Deposition and properties of optical oxide coatings from polymerized solutions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2960–2964 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dislich, P. Hinz, “History and principles of the sol-gel process and some new multicomponent oxide coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 11–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

R. W. Phillips, J. W. Dodds, “Optical interference coatings prepared from solution,” Appl. Opt. 20, 40–47 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dislich, E. Hussmann, “Amorphous and crystalline dip coatings obtained from organometallic solutions,” Thin Solid Films 77, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoldas, “Investigations of porous oxides as an antireflective coating for glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1425–1429 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. M. Mattox, “Surface cleaning in thin film technology,” Thin Solid Films 53, 81–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

B. Yoldas, “Preparation of glass and ceramics from metal organic compounds,” J. Mater. Sci. 12, 1203–1208 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Woodhead, “Sol-gel processes for titania-based products,” Sci. Ceram. 9, 27–29 (1977).

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

R. S. Sokolova, “Internal stresses in thin oxide films deposited from hydrolyzable solutions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 15–15 (1974).

1962 (1)

H. Schroeder, “Properties and applications of oxide layer deposited on glass from organic solutions,” Opt. Acta 9, 249–254 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aktulga, E.

E. Aktulga, “Optical parameters of a weakly absorbing film by spectrophotometric transmittance measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Istanbul University, Istanbul, 1983).

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Arndt, D. P.

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bel Hadj, F.

F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, J. M.

Bennett, J. M.

Bishop, C. A.

R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Borgogno, J.

Borgogno, J. P.

Brinker, C. J.

C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 171.

Carniglia, C. K.

Case, W. E.

Crandall, R. S.

B. W. Faughan, R. S. Crandall, “Electrochromic displays based on WO3,” in Display Devices,J. I. Pankove, ed., Vol. 40 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 181.
[CrossRef]

Demiryont, H.

H. Demiryont, J. R. Site, K. M. Geib, “Effects of oxygen content on the optical properties of tantalum oxide films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 490–495 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effect of oxygen in ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dislich, H.

H. Dislich, P. Hinz, “History and principles of the sol-gel process and some new multicomponent oxide coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 11–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Dislich, E. Hussmann, “Amorphous and crystalline dip coatings obtained from organometallic solutions,” Thin Solid Films 77, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Dislich, “Thin films from the sol-gel process,” in Sol-Gel Technology for Thin Films,L. Klein, ed. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988), p. 67.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dodds, J. W.

Ebert, J.

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Faughan, B. W.

B. W. Faughan, R. S. Crandall, “Electrochromic displays based on WO3,” in Display Devices,J. I. Pankove, ed., Vol. 40 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 181.
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

Geib, K. M.

Gibson, U. J.

Guenther, K. H.

Haisma, J.

Hays, D. D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, P.

H. Dislich, P. Hinz, “History and principles of the sol-gel process and some new multicomponent oxide coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 11–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Hodgkin, V. A.

Howson, R. P.

R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Hussmann, E.

H. Dislich, E. Hussmann, “Amorphous and crystalline dip coatings obtained from organometallic solutions,” Thin Solid Films 77, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Klapp, W. P.

Knittl, Z.

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, London, 1976).

Kuster, H.

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, B.

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. M.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

R. J. Martin, “Review: ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mattox, D. M.

D. M. Mattox, “Surface cleaning in thin film technology,” Thin Solid Films 53, 81–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Paesold, G.

Partlow, D. P.

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Phalippou, J.

F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. W.

Pulker, K.

Purvis, M. K.

Quinn, D. M.

Ridge, M. I.

R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

Saxer, A.

Scherer, G. W.

C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 171.

Schmell, R. A.

Schroeder, H.

H. Schroeder, “Properties and applications of oxide layer deposited on glass from organic solutions,” Opt. Acta 9, 249–254 (1962).
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder, “Oxide layers Deposited from organic solutions” in Physics of Thin Films,G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, pp. 88–141.

Sempere, R.

F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Site, J. R.

Sites, J. R.

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effect of oxygen in ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sokolova, R. S.

R. S. Sokolova, “Internal stresses in thin oxide films deposited from hydrolyzable solutions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 15–15 (1974).

Strome, D. H.

Suziki, K.

R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, R.

Temple, P. A.

Thomas, I. M.

Thonn, T. F.

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Woodhead, J. L.

J. L. Woodhead, “Sol-gel processes for titania-based products,” Sci. Ceram. 9, 27–29 (1977).

Yoldas, B.

B. Yoldas, “Investigations of porous oxides as an antireflective coating for glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1425–1429 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yoldas, “Preparation of glass and ceramics from metal organic compounds,” J. Mater. Sci. 12, 1203–1208 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yoldas, B. E.

Appl. Opt. (11)

K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Phillips, J. W. Dodds, “Optical interference coatings prepared from solution,” Appl. Opt. 20, 40–47 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Yoldas, “Deposition and properties of optical oxide coatings from polymerized solutions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2960–2964 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Yoldas, D. P. Partlow, “Wide spectrum antireflective coating for fused silica and other glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1418–1424 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle-Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Site, K. M. Geib, “Effects of oxygen content on the optical properties of tantalum oxide films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 490–495 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Haisma, “Optical thin films produced by non vacuum techniques,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2666–2673 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Thomas, “Single-layer TiO2 and multilayer TiO2-SiO2 optical coatings prepared from coloidal suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4688–4691 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: a study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennet, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoldas, “Investigations of porous oxides as an antireflective coating for glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1425–1429 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

R. J. Martin, “Review: ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoldas, “Preparation of glass and ceramics from metal organic compounds,” J. Mater. Sci. 12, 1203–1208 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Non Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Bel Hadj, R. Sempere, J. Phalippou, “Study of thin solid films elaborated by dip coating,” J. Non Cryst. Solids 82, 417–425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

H. Dislich, P. Hinz, “History and principles of the sol-gel process and some new multicomponent oxide coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 11–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effect of oxygen in ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

H. Schroeder, “Properties and applications of oxide layer deposited on glass from organic solutions,” Opt. Acta 9, 249–254 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. News (1)

I. M. Thomas, “Optical coatings by the sol-gel process,” Opt. News 12 (8), 18–22 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Ceram. (1)

J. L. Woodhead, “Sol-gel processes for titania-based products,” Sci. Ceram. 9, 27–29 (1977).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

R. S. Sokolova, “Internal stresses in thin oxide films deposited from hydrolyzable solutions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 15–15 (1974).

Thin Solid Films (4)

H. Dislich, E. Hussmann, “Amorphous and crystalline dip coatings obtained from organometallic solutions,” Thin Solid Films 77, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mattox, “Surface cleaning in thin film technology,” Thin Solid Films 53, 81–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, “High-band-gap optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 micron fusion layers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

R. P. Howson, K. Suziki, C. A. Bishop, M. I. Ridge, “Reactive ion plating of TiO2,” Vacuum 34, 291–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Schroeder, “Oxide layers Deposited from organic solutions” in Physics of Thin Films,G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, pp. 88–141.

C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 171.

B. W. Faughan, R. S. Crandall, “Electrochromic displays based on WO3,” in Display Devices,J. I. Pankove, ed., Vol. 40 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), p. 181.
[CrossRef]

H. Dislich, “Thin films from the sol-gel process,” in Sol-Gel Technology for Thin Films,L. Klein, ed. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988), p. 67.

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, London, 1976).

E. Aktulga, “Optical parameters of a weakly absorbing film by spectrophotometric transmittance measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Istanbul University, Istanbul, 1983).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thickness of sol-gel TiO2 films deposited onto quartz substrates as a function of spinning rate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of number of applications on the overall film thickness of multicoated TiO2 films deposited onto quartz substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrophotometric transmission spectrum of spin-coated TiO2 films deposited upon quartz substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrophotometric transmission spectrum of IBS films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient of spin-coated films. The ellipsometric value (E) is indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength dependence of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of IBS TiO2 films (dotted–dashed curves) and heat treated (350°C) spin-coated films (solid curves).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the final film thickness and the refractive index for λ = 633 nm on firing temperature (Vs = 2100 rpm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of refractive index with film thickness: solid curves, spin coated and fired at 250°C; dashed line, IBS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical Properties and Some Other Characteristics of TIO2 Filmsa

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C ( λ ) = T ( λ ) + T ( λ ) 2 T ( λ ) + T ( λ ) ,
U ( λ ) = T ( λ ) + + T ( λ ) 2 T ( λ ) + T ( λ ) .
n s ( λ ) = 1 + [ 1 + T 0 2 ( λ ) ] 1 / 2 T 0 ( λ ) .
n ( λ ) = ½ { [ 8 n s C ( λ ) + ( n s + 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 + [ 8 n s C ( λ ) + ( n s 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 } ,
k ( λ ) = λ 4 π d ln U ( λ ) + [ U ( λ ) 2 C ( λ ) 2 + δ ( λ ) ] 1 / 2 2 a ( λ ) ,
δ ( λ ) = ( n s 2 1 8 n s ) 2 [ n ( λ ) 1 n ( λ ) ] 2 ,
a ( λ ) = [ n ( λ ) + 1 ] 3 [ n ( λ ) + n s 2 ] 16 n s n ( λ ) 2 .
d = { 4 [ n ( λ i ) λ i n ( λ i + 1 ) λ i + 1 ] } 1 .

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