Abstract

A new method of absolute calibration of photodetectors based on a nonclassical effect in nonlinear optics is discussed. The combined influence of a monochromatic flux of pump photons and quantum vacuum noise on a nonlinear crystal with no center of symmetry results in the appearance of rigorously correlated pairs of photons with continuous spectral distribution in the spontaneous parametric scattering of light (spontaneous parametric downconversion) process. The presence of an optical field in a broad spectral range created by the two-photon states (biphotons) makes it possible to develop a new method of measuring the spectral distribution of the absolute value of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors, both in photon counting and in analog regimes, that does not use any calibrated standard light sources (étalons). The feasibility of the method is demonstrated on different types of photomultiplier tube.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. N. Klyshko, “Coherent photon decay in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 6, 23–25 (1967);S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, R. L. Beyer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–735 (1967);O. Magde, H. Mahr, “Study in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of spontaneous parametric interaction tunable from 400 to 16 000 Å,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 905–912 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. G. Giallorenzi, C. L. Tang, “Quantum theory of spontaneous parametric scattering of intense light,” Phys. Rev. 166, 905–912 (1968);D. N. Klyshko, “Scattering of light in a medium with nonlinear polarizability,” Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 522–527 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1980;Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).
    [PubMed]
  6. Some of the earliest statistical treatments were by B. R. Mollow, R. J. Glauber, “Quantum theory of parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. 160, 1076–1094 (1967);B. R. Mollow, “Quantum statistics of coupled oscillator systems,” Phys. Rev. 162, 1256 (1967);D. A. Kleinman, “Theory of optical parametric noise,” Phys. Rev. 174, 1027–1039 (1968);B. Y. Zeldovich, D. N. Klyshko, “Statistics of field in parametric luminescence,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40–42 (1969);J. Tucker, D. F. Walls, “Quantum theory of the traveling-wave frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 178, 2036–2043 (1968);B. R. Mollow, “Photon correlation in the parametric frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2684–2698 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Graham, “General correlation identity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 117–121 (1984);C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Theory of parametric frequency down-conversion of light,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2409–2438 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Jakeman, J. G. Walker, “Analysis of a method for the generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Opt. Commun. 55, 219–223 (1985);J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201–205 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. F. Friberg, L. Mandel, “Production of squeezed states by combination of parametric down-conversion and harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 48, 439–442 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. N. Klyshko, “The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox for energy–time variables,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 32, 555–562 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Shih, C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2925 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Chosh, L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903–1907 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).
  15. D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).
  17. S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Experimental realisation of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–61 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).
  22. J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, P. R. Tapster, “Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4616 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. Mandel, “Fluctuations of photon beams and their correlations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 72, 1037–1045 (1957).
  24. H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).
  25. D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. J. Kimble, L. Mandel, “Photoelectron detection of polychromatic light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 844–853 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. J. Glauber, “Optical coherence and photon statistics,” in Quantum Optics and Electronics, C. de Witt, A. Blandin, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1965).
  28. A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Experimental and theoretical comparison of photon counting and current measurements of light intensity,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1673–1687 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. V. R. Astafurov, G. N. Glasov, “Comparison of accuracy in light intensity measurement by photon counting and charge accumulation methods,” Radiokh. Elektron. 1, 148–156 (1985).
  31. A. V. Sergienko, A. N. Penin, “Absolute calibration of analog photodetectors using biphoton fields,” Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. 12, 328–330 (1986).

1989 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox for energy–time variables,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 32, 555–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. H. Shih, C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2925 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

R. Chosh, L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903–1907 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, P. R. Tapster, “Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (4)

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sergienko, A. N. Penin, “Absolute calibration of analog photodetectors using biphoton fields,” Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. 12, 328–330 (1986).

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Experimental realisation of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (4)

E. Jakeman, J. G. Walker, “Analysis of a method for the generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Opt. Commun. 55, 219–223 (1985);J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201–205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Astafurov, G. N. Glasov, “Comparison of accuracy in light intensity measurement by photon counting and charge accumulation methods,” Radiokh. Elektron. 1, 148–156 (1985).

1984 (3)

H. J. Kimble, L. Mandel, “Photoelectron detection of polychromatic light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 844–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Friberg, L. Mandel, “Production of squeezed states by combination of parametric down-conversion and harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 48, 439–442 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Graham, “General correlation identity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 117–121 (1984);C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Theory of parametric frequency down-conversion of light,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2409–2438 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).

1977 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “Use of vacuum fluctuations as an optical brightness standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591–599 (1977);“Utilisation of a two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112–1117 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

T. G. Giallorenzi, C. L. Tang, “Quantum theory of spontaneous parametric scattering of intense light,” Phys. Rev. 166, 905–912 (1968);D. N. Klyshko, “Scattering of light in a medium with nonlinear polarizability,” Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 522–527 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

Some of the earliest statistical treatments were by B. R. Mollow, R. J. Glauber, “Quantum theory of parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. 160, 1076–1094 (1967);B. R. Mollow, “Quantum statistics of coupled oscillator systems,” Phys. Rev. 162, 1256 (1967);D. A. Kleinman, “Theory of optical parametric noise,” Phys. Rev. 174, 1027–1039 (1968);B. Y. Zeldovich, D. N. Klyshko, “Statistics of field in parametric luminescence,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40–42 (1969);J. Tucker, D. F. Walls, “Quantum theory of the traveling-wave frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 178, 2036–2043 (1968);B. R. Mollow, “Photon correlation in the parametric frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2684–2698 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, “Coherent photon decay in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 6, 23–25 (1967);S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, R. L. Beyer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–735 (1967);O. Magde, H. Mahr, “Study in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of spontaneous parametric interaction tunable from 400 to 16 000 Å,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 905–912 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

L. Mandel, “Fluctuations of photon beams and their correlations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 72, 1037–1045 (1957).

Abram, I.

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih, C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2925 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astafurov, V. R.

V. R. Astafurov, G. N. Glasov, “Comparison of accuracy in light intensity measurement by photon counting and charge accumulation methods,” Radiokh. Elektron. 1, 148–156 (1985).

Burnham, D. C.

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Carmichael, H. J.

D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chosh, R.

R. Chosh, L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903–1907 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Doligne, G.

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friberg, S.

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friberg, S. F.

S. F. Friberg, L. Mandel, “Production of squeezed states by combination of parametric down-conversion and harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 48, 439–442 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi, C. L. Tang, “Quantum theory of spontaneous parametric scattering of intense light,” Phys. Rev. 166, 905–912 (1968);D. N. Klyshko, “Scattering of light in a medium with nonlinear polarizability,” Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 522–527 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Glasov, G. N.

V. R. Astafurov, G. N. Glasov, “Comparison of accuracy in light intensity measurement by photon counting and charge accumulation methods,” Radiokh. Elektron. 1, 148–156 (1985).

Glauber, R. J.

Some of the earliest statistical treatments were by B. R. Mollow, R. J. Glauber, “Quantum theory of parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. 160, 1076–1094 (1967);B. R. Mollow, “Quantum statistics of coupled oscillator systems,” Phys. Rev. 162, 1256 (1967);D. A. Kleinman, “Theory of optical parametric noise,” Phys. Rev. 174, 1027–1039 (1968);B. Y. Zeldovich, D. N. Klyshko, “Statistics of field in parametric luminescence,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40–42 (1969);J. Tucker, D. F. Walls, “Quantum theory of the traveling-wave frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 178, 2036–2043 (1968);B. R. Mollow, “Photon correlation in the parametric frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2684–2698 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, “Optical coherence and photon statistics,” in Quantum Optics and Electronics, C. de Witt, A. Blandin, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1965).

Graham, R.

R. Graham, “General correlation identity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 117–121 (1984);C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Theory of parametric frequency down-conversion of light,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2409–2438 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Experimental realisation of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, J. G. Walker, “Analysis of a method for the generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Opt. Commun. 55, 219–223 (1985);J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201–205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, L. Mandel, “Photoelectron detection of polychromatic light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 844–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H.J.

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaeva, G. K.

G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, “The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox for energy–time variables,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 32, 555–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, “Use of vacuum fluctuations as an optical brightness standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591–599 (1977);“Utilisation of a two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112–1117 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, “Coherent photon decay in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 6, 23–25 (1967);S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, R. L. Beyer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–735 (1967);O. Magde, H. Mahr, “Study in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of spontaneous parametric interaction tunable from 400 to 16 000 Å,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 905–912 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1980;Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).
[PubMed]

Machado Mata, J. A.

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).

Malygin, A. A.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).

Mandel, L.

R. Chosh, L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903–1907 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Experimental realisation of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Friberg, L. Mandel, “Production of squeezed states by combination of parametric down-conversion and harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 48, 439–442 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kimble, L. Mandel, “Photoelectron detection of polychromatic light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 844–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. Mandel, “Fluctuations of photon beams and their correlations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 72, 1037–1045 (1957).

Milburn, G. J.

D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mollow, B. R.

Some of the earliest statistical treatments were by B. R. Mollow, R. J. Glauber, “Quantum theory of parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. 160, 1076–1094 (1967);B. R. Mollow, “Quantum statistics of coupled oscillator systems,” Phys. Rev. 162, 1256 (1967);D. A. Kleinman, “Theory of optical parametric noise,” Phys. Rev. 174, 1027–1039 (1968);B. Y. Zeldovich, D. N. Klyshko, “Statistics of field in parametric luminescence,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40–42 (1969);J. Tucker, D. F. Walls, “Quantum theory of the traveling-wave frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 178, 2036–2043 (1968);B. R. Mollow, “Photon correlation in the parametric frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2684–2698 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, C. J.

Ou, Z. Y.

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oudar, J. L.

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penin, A. N.

G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).

A. V. Sergienko, A. N. Penin, “Absolute calibration of analog photodetectors using biphoton fields,” Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. 12, 328–330 (1986).

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).

Pike, E. R.

Raj, R. K.

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

Ridley, K. D.

Sergienko, A. V.

G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).

A. V. Sergienko, A. N. Penin, “Absolute calibration of analog photodetectors using biphoton fields,” Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. 12, 328–330 (1986).

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).

Shapiro, J. H.

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).

Shih, Y. H.

Y. H. Shih, C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2925 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. L.

T. G. Giallorenzi, C. L. Tang, “Quantum theory of spontaneous parametric scattering of intense light,” Phys. Rev. 166, 905–912 (1968);D. N. Klyshko, “Scattering of light in a medium with nonlinear polarizability,” Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 522–527 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

Walker, J. G.

E. Jakeman, J. G. Walker, “Analysis of a method for the generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Opt. Commun. 55, 219–223 (1985);J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201–205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D. F.

D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, D. L.

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Ling-An

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. P.

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. (1)

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, J. A. Machado Mata, “Optical communication with two-photon coherent states—Part II: Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-25, 179–191 (1979).

Opt. Acta (1)

D. F. Walls, G. J. Milburn, H. J. Carmichael, “Photoelectron counting probabilities for non-classical fields,” Opt. Acta 29, 1179–1198 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. Jakeman, J. G. Walker, “Analysis of a method for the generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Opt. Commun. 55, 219–223 (1985);J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201–205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Friberg, L. Mandel, “Production of squeezed states by combination of parametric down-conversion and harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 48, 439–442 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

T. G. Giallorenzi, C. L. Tang, “Quantum theory of spontaneous parametric scattering of intense light,” Phys. Rev. 166, 905–912 (1968);D. N. Klyshko, “Scattering of light in a medium with nonlinear polarizability,” Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 522–527 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Some of the earliest statistical treatments were by B. R. Mollow, R. J. Glauber, “Quantum theory of parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. 160, 1076–1094 (1967);B. R. Mollow, “Quantum statistics of coupled oscillator systems,” Phys. Rev. 162, 1256 (1967);D. A. Kleinman, “Theory of optical parametric noise,” Phys. Rev. 174, 1027–1039 (1968);B. Y. Zeldovich, D. N. Klyshko, “Statistics of field in parametric luminescence,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40–42 (1969);J. Tucker, D. F. Walls, “Quantum theory of the traveling-wave frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 178, 2036–2043 (1968);B. R. Mollow, “Photon correlation in the parametric frequency converter,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2684–2698 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. J. Kimble, L. Mandel, “Photoelectron detection of polychromatic light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 844–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Graham, “General correlation identity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 117–121 (1984);C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Theory of parametric frequency down-conversion of light,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2409–2438 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih, C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2925 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chosh, L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903–1907 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of time delays in the parametric production of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011–2015 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abram, R. K. Raj, J. L. Oudar, G. Doligne, “Direct observation of the second order coherency of parametrically generated light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2516–2521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, Z. Y. Ou, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2049 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Experimental realisation of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling-An Wu, H.J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520–2524 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

L. Mandel, “Fluctuations of photon beams and their correlations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 72, 1037–1045 (1957).

Radiokh. Elektron. (1)

V. R. Astafurov, G. N. Glasov, “Comparison of accuracy in light intensity measurement by photon counting and charge accumulation methods,” Radiokh. Elektron. 1, 148–156 (1985).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Efficient generator of two-photon field in the Visible region,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939–941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, “Use of vacuum fluctuations as an optical brightness standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591–599 (1977);“Utilisation of a two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112–1117 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (2)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatiotemporal grouping of photons in spontaneous parametric scattering of light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227–231 (1985).

G. K. Kitaeva, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Interference of zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum and photon correlation in parametric light scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 293–295 (1987).

Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. (2)

D. N. Klyshko, “Coherent photon decay in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 6, 23–25 (1967);S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, R. L. Beyer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–735 (1967);O. Magde, H. Mahr, “Study in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of spontaneous parametric interaction tunable from 400 to 16 000 Å,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 905–912 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using biphotonic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477–481 (1981).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox for energy–time variables,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 32, 555–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. V. Sergienko, A. N. Penin, “Absolute calibration of analog photodetectors using biphoton fields,” Sov. Tekh. Phys. Lett. 12, 328–330 (1986).

Other (2)

R. J. Glauber, “Optical coherence and photon statistics,” in Quantum Optics and Electronics, C. de Witt, A. Blandin, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1965).

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1980;Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).
[PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for the absolute standardless calibration of photodetectors: 1, nonlinear crystal; 2, focusing lens; 3, spectral device; 4's, photodetectors; 5, coincident count scheme, 6's, counters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral-angular intensity distribution of light emerging from the LiIO3 nonlinear crystal pumped by radiation with wavelength λ0 = 325 nm. Here θi = (kik0) and φ is the angle between the pump wave vector k0 and the optical axis of crystal (z); photons conjugated by condition (1) are depicted by ● and ○.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum-efficiency spectral distribution for three samples of a Soviet photomultiplier tube, type FEU-79 (multialkali S-20 photocathode). The integral sensitivity SΣ of devices 1, 2, and 3 was 306, 210, and 143 μA/lm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral distribution of quantum efficiency for three samples of a Soviet fast photomultiplier tube, type FEU-77 (S-20). The integral sensitivity SΣ of devices 1, 2, and 3 was 220, 160, and 78 μA/lm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral distribution of quantum efficiency for RCA C31034A (GaAs photocathode) and FEU-130 (bialkali photocathode SΣ = 60 μA/lm) quantacons.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral distribution of quantum efficiency for photomultiplier tube FEU-79 (multialkali photocathode SΣ = 238 μA/lm) in the analog regime of charge accumulation.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω 1 + ω 2 = ω 0 , k 1 + k 2 = k 0 .
P i = c 2 π η i d A i t t + T d t E ( ) E ( + ) , i = 1 , 2 ,
P c = c 2 4 π 2 η 1 η 2 d A 1 d A 2 0 T d t 1 τ t + T d t 2 E 1 ( ) E 2 ( ) E 1 ( + ) E 2 ( + ) ,
P 1 = n 1 η 1 N 1 ,
P c = n 1 n 2 η 1 η 2 N 1 N 2 .
N 1 = N 2 = N 1 N 2 .
η 1 = P c / P 2 .
i ( t ) = n q n f n ( t t n ) .
η 1 q 1 = ξ 2 q 2 i 1 i 2 i 2 2 .

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