Abstract

Ulloa’s complete print of the glories and fogbows on Mt. Pambamarca in Peru (now Ecuador) is presented. It shows two other phenomena, an erupting volcano and an as yet unidentified optical effect. The glories and fogbow are analyzed to obtain the drop size of the fog, and the unidentified features are discussed.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Juan, A. Ulloa, “Relacion Historica del viage a la America Meridional hecho de orden de S. Mag. para medir algunos grados de meridiano terrestre y venir por ellos em conocimiento de la veradura figura, y magnitud de la tierra, con otras varias observaciones astronomicas, y phisicas,” A. Marin, Madrid (1748).
  2. G. Juan, A. Ulloa, Voyage Historique de l’Amerique Meridionale fait par ordre du roi d’Espagne par don George Juan … et par don Antoine de Ulloa … (Arkste ‘e & Merkus, Amsterdam, 1752), Vol. I.
  3. H. C. Bryant, N. Jarmie, “The glory,” Sci. Am. 231, 60–71 (July1974).
  4. V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “The theory of the glory,” in Statistical Mechanics and Statistical Methods in Theory and Application, U. Landman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 723–764.
  5. R. A. R. Tricker, Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).
  6. D. K. Lynch, P. Schwartz, “Rainbows and fogbows,” Appl. Opt. 30, (Fill in in page—this issue) 0000–0000 (1991).
  7. R. G. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).
  8. D. K. Lynch, “Atmospheric halos,” Sci. Am. 238, 144–152 (1978).
  9. R. G. Greenler, E. Trankle, “Athelic arcs from airborne ice crystals,” Nature (London) 311, 339–343 (1984).

1991 (1)

D. K. Lynch, P. Schwartz, “Rainbows and fogbows,” Appl. Opt. 30, (Fill in in page—this issue) 0000–0000 (1991).

1984 (1)

R. G. Greenler, E. Trankle, “Athelic arcs from airborne ice crystals,” Nature (London) 311, 339–343 (1984).

1978 (1)

D. K. Lynch, “Atmospheric halos,” Sci. Am. 238, 144–152 (1978).

1974 (1)

H. C. Bryant, N. Jarmie, “The glory,” Sci. Am. 231, 60–71 (July1974).

Bryant, H. C.

H. C. Bryant, N. Jarmie, “The glory,” Sci. Am. 231, 60–71 (July1974).

Greenler, R. G.

R. G. Greenler, E. Trankle, “Athelic arcs from airborne ice crystals,” Nature (London) 311, 339–343 (1984).

R. G. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).

Jarmie, N.

H. C. Bryant, N. Jarmie, “The glory,” Sci. Am. 231, 60–71 (July1974).

Juan, G.

G. Juan, A. Ulloa, Voyage Historique de l’Amerique Meridionale fait par ordre du roi d’Espagne par don George Juan … et par don Antoine de Ulloa … (Arkste ‘e & Merkus, Amsterdam, 1752), Vol. I.

Juan, J.

J. Juan, A. Ulloa, “Relacion Historica del viage a la America Meridional hecho de orden de S. Mag. para medir algunos grados de meridiano terrestre y venir por ellos em conocimiento de la veradura figura, y magnitud de la tierra, con otras varias observaciones astronomicas, y phisicas,” A. Marin, Madrid (1748).

Khare, V.

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “The theory of the glory,” in Statistical Mechanics and Statistical Methods in Theory and Application, U. Landman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 723–764.

Lynch, D. K.

D. K. Lynch, P. Schwartz, “Rainbows and fogbows,” Appl. Opt. 30, (Fill in in page—this issue) 0000–0000 (1991).

D. K. Lynch, “Atmospheric halos,” Sci. Am. 238, 144–152 (1978).

Nussenzveig, H. M.

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “The theory of the glory,” in Statistical Mechanics and Statistical Methods in Theory and Application, U. Landman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 723–764.

Schwartz, P.

D. K. Lynch, P. Schwartz, “Rainbows and fogbows,” Appl. Opt. 30, (Fill in in page—this issue) 0000–0000 (1991).

Trankle, E.

R. G. Greenler, E. Trankle, “Athelic arcs from airborne ice crystals,” Nature (London) 311, 339–343 (1984).

Tricker, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Tricker, Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

Ulloa, A.

J. Juan, A. Ulloa, “Relacion Historica del viage a la America Meridional hecho de orden de S. Mag. para medir algunos grados de meridiano terrestre y venir por ellos em conocimiento de la veradura figura, y magnitud de la tierra, con otras varias observaciones astronomicas, y phisicas,” A. Marin, Madrid (1748).

G. Juan, A. Ulloa, Voyage Historique de l’Amerique Meridionale fait par ordre du roi d’Espagne par don George Juan … et par don Antoine de Ulloa … (Arkste ‘e & Merkus, Amsterdam, 1752), Vol. I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

D. K. Lynch, P. Schwartz, “Rainbows and fogbows,” Appl. Opt. 30, (Fill in in page—this issue) 0000–0000 (1991).

Nature (London) (1)

R. G. Greenler, E. Trankle, “Athelic arcs from airborne ice crystals,” Nature (London) 311, 339–343 (1984).

Sci. Am. (2)

D. K. Lynch, “Atmospheric halos,” Sci. Am. 238, 144–152 (1978).

H. C. Bryant, N. Jarmie, “The glory,” Sci. Am. 231, 60–71 (July1974).

Other (5)

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “The theory of the glory,” in Statistical Mechanics and Statistical Methods in Theory and Application, U. Landman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 723–764.

R. A. R. Tricker, Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

J. Juan, A. Ulloa, “Relacion Historica del viage a la America Meridional hecho de orden de S. Mag. para medir algunos grados de meridiano terrestre y venir por ellos em conocimiento de la veradura figura, y magnitud de la tierra, con otras varias observaciones astronomicas, y phisicas,” A. Marin, Madrid (1748).

G. Juan, A. Ulloa, Voyage Historique de l’Amerique Meridionale fait par ordre du roi d’Espagne par don George Juan … et par don Antoine de Ulloa … (Arkste ‘e & Merkus, Amsterdam, 1752), Vol. I.

R. G. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Original figure from Juan and Ulloa (1752). Note that three scenes are depicted: (1) an erupting volcano (left), 2) the glories and fogbows (upper right), and (3) the unidentified arcs (lower right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Enlargement of the glories and fogbows from Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enlargement of the unidentified arcs from Fig. 1.

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