Abstract

We describe a general investigation into the scattering of light by human hair. The main features of the intensity distribution produced by light scattered by an individual hair are identified. Qualitative explanations for the features are advanced in terms of the arrangement of the outer structure of the hair and its level of pigmentation. Contrast gloss values are calculated in an attempt to quantify the appearance of hair. These values are found to depend not only on the properties of hair, such as color and condition, but also on the direction and polarization state of the incident light. In assessing the effects of cosmetic treatments on hair, gloss values are shown to be useful where readings from treated hairs are compared with those from a control sample investigated in the same conditions.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).
  2. R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).
  3. R. S. Hunter, “Methods of Determining Gloss, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 18, 19–39 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Nickerson, “A new cotton lustermeter for yarns and fibers,” Text. Res. J. 27, 111–123 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Ryder, Hair: Studies in Biology No. 41 (Arnold, London, 1973), pp. 42–43.

1977

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).

1957

D. Nickerson, “A new cotton lustermeter for yarns and fibers,” Text. Res. J. 27, 111–123 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1939

R. S. Hunter, “Methods of Determining Gloss, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 18, 19–39 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, J. J.

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).

Garcia, M. L.

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, “Methods of Determining Gloss, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 18, 19–39 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, “A new cotton lustermeter for yarns and fibers,” Text. Res. J. 27, 111–123 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ryder, M.

M. Ryder, Hair: Studies in Biology No. 41 (Arnold, London, 1973), pp. 42–43.

Stamm, R. F.

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand.

R. S. Hunter, “Methods of Determining Gloss, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 18, 19–39 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem.

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 1,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 571–599 (1977).

R. F. Stamm, M. L. Garcia, J. J. Fuchs, “The optical properties of human hair 2,” J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 601–699 (1977).

Text. Res. J.

D. Nickerson, “A new cotton lustermeter for yarns and fibers,” Text. Res. J. 27, 111–123 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Ryder, Hair: Studies in Biology No. 41 (Arnold, London, 1973), pp. 42–43.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the geometric arrangement of the human hair cuticle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangements of hair fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental arrangement of the measuring equipment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Goniophotometric intensity scans from a single black fiber using a linearly polarized white-light source incident on a black hair at 45°: (a) s-polarized light and (b) p-polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Goniophotometric intensity scans from a single brown fiber using a linearly polarized white-light source incident on a brown hair at 45°: (a) s-polarized light and (b) p-polarized light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Goniophotometric intensity scans from a single white fiber using a linearly polarized white-light source incident on a white hair at 45°: (a) s-polarized light and (b) p-polarized light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic arrangement of the hair cuticle illustrating the effect of the scale angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Goniophotometric intensity scans from a brown hair taken at three positions along the fiber using unpolarized light.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Goniophotometric intensity scans from a blond hair taken at four angles of incidence using unpolarized light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Goniophotometric intensity scans from an array of untreated dark brown fibers (the control) using linearly polarized light incident at 30°: (a) s polarized and (b) p polarized.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Goniophotometric intensity scans from an array of treated (bleached and permed) dark brown fibers using linearly polarized light incident at 30°: (a) s polarized and (b) p polarized.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Contrast Gloss Values Calculated for a Black, a Brown, and a White Hair

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Table II Contrast Gloss Values Calculated for an Array of Blond Hairs at Four Angles of Incidence

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Table III Contrast Gloss Values Calculated for Cosmetically Treated and Control Samples of Hair

Equations (1)

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G c = S - D S ,

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