Abstract

We describe a pulse readout technique for high gain and a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in signal beam amplification by two-beam coupling in a photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal. The basic idea behind the technique is the formation of photorefractive gratings using a low-intensity pump beam and subsequent readout of this grating with a strong pulse for a duration that is less than the time constant for noise development or beam fanning. Large values (~11,000) of the signal beam gain and SNR’s of ~1300 are achieved. A noise-free image amplification is the main achievement of this technique.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).
  2. Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Optical digital logic operations by two-beam coupling in photorefractive material,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1598–1603 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Khoury, G. Hussain, R. W. Eason, “Contrast manipulation and controllable spatial filtering via photorefractive two-beam coupling,” Opt. Commun. 70, 272–276 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Feinberg, “Asymmetric self-defocusing of an optical beam from the photorefractive effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46–51 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. R. Moore, D. L. Walters, “Characterization of asymmetric self-defocusing and centrosymmetric scattering in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 136–142 (1988).
  8. M. S. Tobin, S. M. Ross, “Competition between beam fanning and two-beam coupling in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 17–24 (1988).
  9. W. Clark et al., “Enhanced photorefractive beam fanning due to internal and external electric fields,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1249–1258 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Rajbenbach, A. Delbulbe, J. P. Huignard, “Noise suppression in photorefractive image amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1275–1277 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. H. Beckwith, W. R. Christian, “Two-wave mixing and phase conjugation at 830 nm in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 14, 642–644 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
    [Crossref]

1990 (2)

J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Clark et al., “Enhanced photorefractive beam fanning due to internal and external electric fields,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1249–1258 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

1988 (2)

T. R. Moore, D. L. Walters, “Characterization of asymmetric self-defocusing and centrosymmetric scattering in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 136–142 (1988).

M. S. Tobin, S. M. Ross, “Competition between beam fanning and two-beam coupling in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 17–24 (1988).

1986 (3)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Optical digital logic operations by two-beam coupling in photorefractive material,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1598–1603 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Albers, J.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
[Crossref]

Beckwith, P. H.

Christian, W. R.

Clark, W.

Delbulbe, A.

Eason, R. W.

J. A. Khoury, G. Hussain, R. W. Eason, “Contrast manipulation and controllable spatial filtering via photorefractive two-beam coupling,” Opt. Commun. 70, 272–276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Optical digital logic operations by two-beam coupling in photorefractive material,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1598–1603 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

Goltz, J.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

Guest, C. C.

Herden, A.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J. P.

H. Rajbenbach, A. Delbulbe, J. P. Huignard, “Noise suppression in photorefractive image amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1275–1277 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hussain, G.

J. A. Khoury, G. Hussain, R. W. Eason, “Contrast manipulation and controllable spatial filtering via photorefractive two-beam coupling,” Opt. Commun. 70, 272–276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

Khoury, J. A.

J. A. Khoury, G. Hussain, R. W. Eason, “Contrast manipulation and controllable spatial filtering via photorefractive two-beam coupling,” Opt. Commun. 70, 272–276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Klancnik, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).

Klumb, H.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

Laeri, F.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ledoux, I.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Optical digital logic operations by two-beam coupling in photorefractive material,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1598–1603 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).

Moore, T. R.

T. R. Moore, D. L. Walters, “Characterization of asymmetric self-defocusing and centrosymmetric scattering in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 136–142 (1988).

Pillai, P. K. C.

J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rajbenbach, H.

Rak, D.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ross, S. M.

M. S. Tobin, S. M. Ross, “Competition between beam fanning and two-beam coupling in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 17–24 (1988).

Singh, K.

J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tobin, M. S.

M. S. Tobin, S. M. Ross, “Competition between beam fanning and two-beam coupling in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 17–24 (1988).

Tschudi, T.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
[Crossref]

Walters, D. L.

T. R. Moore, D. L. Walters, “Characterization of asymmetric self-defocusing and centrosymmetric scattering in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 136–142 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laeri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1493–1502 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (4)

J. A. Khoury, G. Hussain, R. W. Eason, “Contrast manipulation and controllable spatial filtering via photorefractive two-beam coupling,” Opt. Commun. 70, 272–276 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, J. Albers, “Coherent cw image amplifier and oscillator using two-wave interaction in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 47, 387–390 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, “A novel way of noise reduction in image amplification by two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 80, 84–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing and energy transfer in BaTiO3 application to laser beamsteering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 302–306 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, “Optimal coherent image amplification by two-wave coupling in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Eng. 25, 228–234 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

T. R. Moore, D. L. Walters, “Characterization of asymmetric self-defocusing and centrosymmetric scattering in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 136–142 (1988).

M. S. Tobin, S. M. Ross, “Competition between beam fanning and two-beam coupling in barium titanate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 874, 17–24 (1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for grating formation and subsequent pulse readout. M′1 and M′2 are mirrors used to derive the erase beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of gain γ on the input intensity ratio IPIN/Is.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the SNR with the initial pump beam intensity. Also shown is the development of the fanned beam with the increase in pump beam intensity with no pulse readout.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ = I S with pump beam I S with no pump beam = I S P - I N I S ,
SNR = I S P - I N I N ,
N = beam fanning time constant duration of each pulse .

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