Abstract

A new method is proposed for profile measurements using a right-angle prism. With this method, the distance to an object surface is measured by using triangulation based on a change of the critical angle of total reflection. An object surface is illuminated by a scanning laser beam and the incident angle of the scattered light into the prism is measured using the change in the critical angle. Three-dimensional profiles of objects with rough surfaces can be measured with high accuracy.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).
  2. T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.
  3. K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Yachida, S. Tsuji, X. Q. Huang, “A computer vision system for 3-D measurement and recognition of flexible wire using cross-stripe light,” in Proceedings of the Sixth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 220–222.
  5. H. K. Nishihara, “Practical real time imaging stereo matcher,” Opt. Eng. 23, 536–545 (1984).
  6. M. Yachida, Y. Kitamura, M. Kimachi, “Trinocular vision: new approach for correspondence problem,” in Proceedings of Eighth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 1041.
  7. G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).
  8. G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Telecentric scanner for three-dimensional sensing,” Opt. Eng. 24, 978–980 (1985).
  9. T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High precision optical surface sensor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 103–108 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.
  11. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

1989 (1)

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High precision optical surface sensor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 103–108 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).

G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Telecentric scanner for three-dimensional sensing,” Opt. Eng. 24, 978–980 (1985).

T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).

1984 (1)

H. K. Nishihara, “Practical real time imaging stereo matcher,” Opt. Eng. 23, 536–545 (1984).

1982 (1)

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.

Adachi, M.

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

Akiyama, K.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, G.

G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Telecentric scanner for three-dimensional sensing,” Opt. Eng. 24, 978–980 (1985).

G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).

Huang, X. Q.

M. Yachida, S. Tsuji, X. Q. Huang, “A computer vision system for 3-D measurement and recognition of flexible wire using cross-stripe light,” in Proceedings of the Sixth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 220–222.

Itoh, K.

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.

Kimachi, M.

M. Yachida, Y. Kitamura, M. Kimachi, “Trinocular vision: new approach for correspondence problem,” in Proceedings of Eighth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 1041.

Kishimoto, W.

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

Kitagawa, Y.

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

Kitamura, Y.

M. Yachida, Y. Kitamura, M. Kimachi, “Trinocular vision: new approach for correspondence problem,” in Proceedings of Eighth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 1041.

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, T.

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

Maul, M.

G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).

G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Telecentric scanner for three-dimensional sensing,” Opt. Eng. 24, 978–980 (1985).

Miyamoto, K.

Musha, T.

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High precision optical surface sensor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 103–108 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.

Nishihara, H. K.

H. K. Nishihara, “Practical real time imaging stereo matcher,” Opt. Eng. 23, 536–545 (1984).

Ozawa, N.

Shibata, T.

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.

Strand, T. C.

T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).

Suzuki, T.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, S.

M. Yachida, S. Tsuji, X. Q. Huang, “A computer vision system for 3-D measurement and recognition of flexible wire using cross-stripe light,” in Proceedings of the Sixth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 220–222.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

Yachida, M.

M. Yachida, Y. Kitamura, M. Kimachi, “Trinocular vision: new approach for correspondence problem,” in Proceedings of Eighth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 1041.

M. Yachida, S. Tsuji, X. Q. Huang, “A computer vision system for 3-D measurement and recognition of flexible wire using cross-stripe light,” in Proceedings of the Sixth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 220–222.

Yoshizawa, I.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) (1)

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical head for digital audio disk,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 634–639 (1982), in Japanese.

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, T. Suzuki, I. Yoshizawa, T. Asakura, “Laser-scanning imaging system for real-time measurements of 3-D profiles,” Opt. Commun. 74, 165–170 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).

H. K. Nishihara, “Practical real time imaging stereo matcher,” Opt. Eng. 23, 536–545 (1984).

G. Bickel, G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Triangulation with expanded range of depth,” Opt. Eng. 24, 975–977 (1985).

G. Häusler, M. Maul, “Telecentric scanner for three-dimensional sensing,” Opt. Eng. 24, 978–980 (1985).

Syst. Control (1)

T. Matsumoto, M. Adachi, Y. Kitagawa, W. Kishimoto, “3-D profile measuring instrument for shoes cad system using laser displacement sensor,” Syst. Control 32, 321–326 (1988), in Japanese.

Other (3)

M. Yachida, S. Tsuji, X. Q. Huang, “A computer vision system for 3-D measurement and recognition of flexible wire using cross-stripe light,” in Proceedings of the Sixth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 220–222.

M. Yachida, Y. Kitamura, M. Kimachi, “Trinocular vision: new approach for correspondence problem,” in Proceedings of Eighth ICPR (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), p. 1041.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of distance measurement: (a) schematic representation of distance measurement and (b) intensity ratio I1/I2 as a function of incident angle ξ and rotational angle ψ of the prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Critical rotational angle ψc as a function of distance z to the object surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the profile measurement: (a) general view and (b) expanded view near the prism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental result of the intensity ratio I1/I2 versus angle ψ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental result of the critical angle ψc versus distance z.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the pipe used to measure the sectional profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Horizontal sectional profiles of the object shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured values of distance z versus ratio of reflectance r/rw at θ = 0°; rw is the reflectance of the white paper.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured values of distance z versus incident angle θ at r/rw = 1.

Equations (2)

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ψ c ( z ) = tan - 1 d ( f - z ) f z .
I 1 / I 2 = ( I 1 / I 2 ) min + t ,

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