Abstract

We describe a rigid, internally modulated Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities in the interferometer arms. The high contrast (0.986) and the small cavity losses (2.7%) permit efficient use of the light power available. The measured shot-noise-limited displacement sensitivity for 35mW of light power is 2.5×10-17m/Hz, in good agreement with the calculated signal-to-noise ratio.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Weiss, “Electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna,” MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Q. Prog. Rep. 105, 54–76 (1972).
  2. B. Buckingham, ed., Proceedings of the Fifth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Perth, 1988 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989).
  3. O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Nabors, A. Farina, T. Day, S. Yang, E. Gustafson, R. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Drever, “Interferometric Detectors for Gravitational Radiation,” in Gravitational Radiation, N. Deruelle, T. Piran, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.
  6. M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Herriott, H. Kogelnik, R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Vogt, “The LIGO project—a progress report,” presented at the Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.
  9. R. Spero, “Status report on the Caltech 40–meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.
  10. B. Meers, “Status report on the Glasgow 10-meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.
  11. A. Brillet, “Progress at Orsay,” presented at Second European Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Chantilly, France, 1986.
  12. R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Drever, “Prospects for laser interferometer gravitational radiation detectors,” presented at Tenth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Padova, Italy, 4–9 July 1983.
  14. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1990 (1)

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

C. Nabors, A. Farina, T. Day, S. Yang, E. Gustafson, R. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. Weiss, “Electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna,” MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Q. Prog. Rep. 105, 54–76 (1972).

1964 (1)

Brillet, A.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Brillet, “Progress at Orsay,” presented at Second European Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Chantilly, France, 1986.

Byer, R.

Crégut, O.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Day, T.

Dewey, D.

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Drever, “Interferometric Detectors for Gravitational Radiation,” in Gravitational Radiation, N. Deruelle, T. Piran, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.

R. Drever, “Prospects for laser interferometer gravitational radiation detectors,” presented at Tenth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Padova, Italy, 4–9 July 1983.

Farina, A.

Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gustafson, E.

Hall, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Herriott, D.

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H.

M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Man, C. N.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Man, N.

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Meers, B.

B. Meers, “Status report on the Glasgow 10-meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

Menhert, A.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Munley, A.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nabors, C.

Peuser, P.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pham Tu, M.

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, N. P.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shoemaker, D.

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Spero, R.

R. Spero, “Status report on the Caltech 40–meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

Vogt, R.

R. Vogt, “The LIGO project—a progress report,” presented at the Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

Wallmeroth, K.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ward, H.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Weiss, R.

R. Weiss, “Electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna,” MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Q. Prog. Rep. 105, 54–76 (1972).

Wu, L.

M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Zeller, P.

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Q. Prog. Rep. (1)

R. Weiss, “Electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna,” MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Q. Prog. Rep. 105, 54–76 (1972).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

O. Crégut, C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, A. Menhert, P. Peuser, N. P. Schmidt, P. Zeller, K. Wallmeroth, “18 W single frequency operation of an injection-locked, cw, Nd:YAG Laser,” Phys. Lett. A 140, 294–298 (1989).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation technique for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Xiao, L. Wu, H. Kimble, “Precision Measurement Beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

R. Drever, “Prospects for laser interferometer gravitational radiation detectors,” presented at Tenth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Padova, Italy, 4–9 July 1983.

R. Drever, “Interferometric Detectors for Gravitational Radiation,” in Gravitational Radiation, N. Deruelle, T. Piran, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.

B. Buckingham, ed., Proceedings of the Fifth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Perth, 1988 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989).

R. Vogt, “The LIGO project—a progress report,” presented at the Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

R. Spero, “Status report on the Caltech 40–meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

B. Meers, “Status report on the Glasgow 10-meter Fabry-Perot prototype gravitational wave detector,” presented at Twelfth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Boulder, Colo., 1989.

A. Brillet, “Progress at Orsay,” presented at Second European Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Chantilly, France, 1986.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer spectrum: top curve, the simple one-bounce Michelson interferometer; middle curve, the recombined-beam FP MI; bottom curve, the shot noise for the recombined-beam Fabry–Perot Michelson measurement.

Equations (2)

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I dp ( ω m ) I sp ( ω m ) = J 0 2 ( Γ ) { ( 1 - A ) 2 + [ sin ( 2 ω m l / c + ϕ cav ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
x ˜ = ( λ 8 F ) ( 2 e I max + I max ) 1 / 2 × { [ 1 - C J 0 ( 2 Γ net ) + 2 I det / ( I max + I min ) ] 1 / 2 M J 0 ( Γ net ) J 1 ( Γ net ) } .

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