Abstract

Poled film of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) is prepared. Poling effects of MNA molecular alignments are observed by reducing the absorption spectrum and increasing the refractive index of the film. Phase-matched second harmonic generation (SHG) is achieved using the mode dispersion relation of the optical waveguide with an estimated SHG conversion efficiency of 7.4 × 10−3 % in the waveguide.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second Harmonic Generation in Poled Polymer Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, “Second-Order Nonlinear-Optical Processes in Orientationally Ordered Materials: Relationship Between Molecular and Macroscopic Properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.
  4. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, A. Dienes, “Second-Harmonic Generation and Absorption Studies of Polymer-Dye Films Oriented by Corona-Onset Poling at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733–741 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Knabke, H. Franke, W. F. X. Frank, “Electro-Optical Properties of a Nonlinear Dye in Poly(methylmethacrylate) and Poly(α-methylstyrene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 761–765 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).
  7. G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.
  8. G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).
  9. H. Itoh, Y. Ishijima, K. Takeshige, S. Kanba, K. Sasaki, “Dichroism of 2-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline,” Appl. Opt. 26, 17–18 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Zhang, K. Sasaki, “Measuring Anisotropic Refractive Indices and Film Thicknesses of Thin Organic Crystals Using the Prism Coupling Method,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1358–1362 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 90–98.
  13. A. Yariv, “Coupled-Mode Theory for Guided-Wave Optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919–933 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (4)

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, A. Dienes, “Second-Harmonic Generation and Absorption Studies of Polymer-Dye Films Oriented by Corona-Onset Poling at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733–741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Knabke, H. Franke, W. F. X. Frank, “Electro-Optical Properties of a Nonlinear Dye in Poly(methylmethacrylate) and Poly(α-methylstyrene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 761–765 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second Harmonic Generation in Poled Polymer Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-Mode Theory for Guided-Wave Optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 90–98.

Cross, G.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Dienes, A.

Frank, W. F. X.

Franke, H.

Garito, A. F.

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

Higgins, B. G.

Ishijima, Y.

Itoh, H.

Kanba, S.

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

Keosian, R.

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

Knabke, G.

Knoesen, A.

Kowel, S. T.

Kuzyk, M. G.

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second Harmonic Generation in Poled Polymer Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Landi, P.

G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

Lipscomb, G. F.

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

Lytel, R.

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

Man, H.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Mann, S.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Mortazavi, M. A.

Narang, R. S.

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R.

G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).

Okazaki, E.

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

Persons, N.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Sasaki, K.

Singer, K. D.

Sohn, J. E.

Stiller, M.

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

Takeshige, K.

Thackara, J.

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 90–98.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Coupled-Mode Theory for Guided-Wave Optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Zhang, G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second Harmonic Generation in Poled Polymer Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-Mode Theory for Guided-Wave Optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, R. S. Narang, “An Exceptionally Large Linear Electro-Optic Effect in the Organic Solid MNA,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

G. Khanarian, R. Norwood, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Periodic Polymer Waveguide: Design of Periodic Electrodes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 129–133 (1989).

D. Haas, H. Yoon, H. Man, G. Cross, S. Mann, N. Persons, “Polymeric Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator; Materials and Fabrication,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1147, 222–232 (1989).

Other (3)

G. Khanarian, D. Haas, R. Keosian, D. Karim, P. Landi, “Phase Matched Second Harmonic Generation in a Polymeric Waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1989 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 254.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 90–98.

J. Thackara, M. Stiller, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, E. Okazaki, “Optoelectronic Waveguide Devices in Thin-Film Organic Media,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest Series 1987, Vol. 14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 260.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample preparation process of a tapered waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum of a poleds film (100 V/μm) compared with an unpoled film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of a poled film as a function of poling electric field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index of a poled film vs wavelength of light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-layer TM mode dispersion curves of the sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tapered property of the guide thickness of the sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for the phase-matched SHG.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Second harmonic output power as a function of the lateral position of the sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Value of Theoretical SHG Conversion Efficiency on Each Phase-Matching Point

Equations (3)

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1 / ( n 2 - 1 ) = C 0 + C 1 / λ 2 ,
P ( 2 ω ) / P ( ω ) = ω 2 d 33 2 l 2 / 4 W × { 2 β ( ω ) / β ( 2 ω ) } 2 × { S ( n , n , m ) } 2 P ( ω ) sinc 2 ( Δ β l / 2 ) ,
S ( n , n , m ) = film e x ( ω ) e x ( ω ) e x ( 2 ω ) d x ,

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