Abstract

Several oxides of vanadium undergo a transition from a semiconductor or insulating state to a metal phase at a critical temperature. Vanadium dioxide undergoes this transition near 68°C, while V2O5 undergoes a similar phase transition near 257°C. During the transition a change in oxide crystal structure is accompanied by large changes in electrical and optical behavior. Thin films of vanadium oxides are capable of reversibly switching from the semiconductor to the metallic state at high speeds and with high spatial resolution. Therefore, these oxides have potential use, particularly in thin film form, for a wide variety of applications involving thermally activated electronic or optical switching devices. Such films are of considerable technical interest because of applications in chemical sensors, energy-conserving coatings, transparent conductors, and switching materials. The numerous potential electronic, optical, and optoelectronic device applications which have been suggested have stimulated work on the preparation of thin films by a variety of techniques, including chemical vapor deposition, solgel, evaporation, and sputter deposition. This paper reviews the optical properties of vanadium oxide coatings and stresses the dependence of film properties on sample preparation and resultant film microstructure.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Adler, “Mechanisms for Metal-Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).
  4. B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).
  5. C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kosuge, “The Phase Diagram and Phase Transition of the V2O3–V2O5 System,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 1613 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown from VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).
  9. G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. D. Eden, “Some Applications Involving the Semiconductor-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 185, 97 (1979).
  12. J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. Nadkarni, V. S. Shirodkar, “Experiment and Theory for Switching in Al/V2O5/Al Devices,” Thin Solid Films 105, 115–129 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Sato, Y. Seino, “Electrochromism in Evaporated WO3–MoO3–V2O5 Films,” Electron. Commun. Jpn 65-C, 104–111 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).
  16. E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. E. Chain, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Fukuma, S. Zembutsu, S. Miyazawa, “Preparation of VO2 Thin Film and Its Direct Optical Bit Recording Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 22, 265–268 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. A. Rozgonyi, D. H. Hensler, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 5, 194–199 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. E. Chain, “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 2–5 (1985).
  25. K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxygluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1765 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. D. Hansen, C. R. Aita, “Low Temperature Reactive Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 660–663 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. A. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Preparation of Thin Films of Vanadium (Di-, Sesqui-, and Pent-) Oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 56–57 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. V. Dorozhko, V. G. Savitskii, “Optical Absorption of Vanadium Pentoxide in the Energy Range 1.0–5.5 eV,” Soc. Phys. Solid State 19, 555–557 (1977).
  35. E. E. Chain, D. M. Byrne, “Microstructural Information Related to Thin Film Optical Measurements,” Thin Solid Films 181, 323–332 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. E. Chain, “Infrared Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films,” IEEE Catalog No. 89TH0257-6 (IEEE, New York, 1989), pp. 229–232.
  37. V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).
  38. A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Thomas, E. E. Chain, “Free Carrier Plasma Diagnostics of Vanadium Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Ninth Symposium on Electronic Materials Processing and Characterization, Dallas, TX, (4–5 June 1990).
  40. J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.
  41. T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).
  42. A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  43. R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 8.

1990

A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxygluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, D. M. Byrne, “Microstructural Information Related to Thin Film Optical Measurements,” Thin Solid Films 181, 323–332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

1987

E. E. Chain, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hansen, C. R. Aita, “Low Temperature Reactive Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 660–663 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 2–5 (1985).

1983

M. Fukuma, S. Zembutsu, S. Miyazawa, “Preparation of VO2 Thin Film and Its Direct Optical Bit Recording Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 22, 265–268 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Nadkarni, V. S. Shirodkar, “Experiment and Theory for Switching in Al/V2O5/Al Devices,” Thin Solid Films 105, 115–129 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown from VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. Sato, Y. Seino, “Electrochromism in Evaporated WO3–MoO3–V2O5 Films,” Electron. Commun. Jpn 65-C, 104–111 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

1979

A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Eden, “Some Applications Involving the Semiconductor-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 185, 97 (1979).

1977

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Dorozhko, V. G. Savitskii, “Optical Absorption of Vanadium Pentoxide in the Energy Range 1.0–5.5 eV,” Soc. Phys. Solid State 19, 555–557 (1977).

1976

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

1974

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

1968

D. Adler, “Mechanisms for Metal-Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Preparation of Thin Films of Vanadium (Di-, Sesqui-, and Pent-) Oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 56–57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Rozgonyi, D. H. Hensler, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 5, 194–199 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

K. Kosuge, “The Phase Diagram and Phase Transition of the V2O3–V2O5 System,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 1613 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D.

D. Adler, “Mechanisms for Metal-Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aita, C. R.

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hansen, C. R. Aita, “Low Temperature Reactive Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 660–663 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Antinovitch, J.

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Babulanam, S. M.

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bachner, F. J.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Belobrovaya, O. Y.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Belyakov, V. I.

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Bernardini, R.

A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, A.

A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, D. I.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Bobyak, L.

A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, B. S.

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Bugaev, A. A.

A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

E. E. Chain, D. M. Byrne, “Microstructural Information Related to Thin Film Optical Measurements,” Thin Solid Films 181, 323–332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Callcott, T. A.

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

Case, F. C.

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Case, W. E.

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chain, E. E.

E. E. Chain, D. M. Byrne, “Microstructural Information Related to Thin Film Optical Measurements,” Thin Solid Films 181, 323–332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Optical Thin Films by X-Ray Diffractometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Chain, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomas, E. E. Chain, “Free Carrier Plasma Diagnostics of Vanadium Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Ninth Symposium on Electronic Materials Processing and Characterization, Dallas, TX, (4–5 June 1990).

E. E. Chain, “Infrared Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films,” IEEE Catalog No. 89TH0257-6 (IEEE, New York, 1989), pp. 229–232.

Chivian, J. S.

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chudnovskii, F. A.

A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

Cogan, S. F.

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

Daniels, J.

J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.

Dmitriyev, V. A.

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Dorozhko, E. V.

E. V. Dorozhko, V. G. Savitskii, “Optical Absorption of Vanadium Pentoxide in the Energy Range 1.0–5.5 eV,” Soc. Phys. Solid State 19, 555–557 (1977).

Eastwood, H. K.

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eden, D. D.

D. D. Eden, “Some Applications Involving the Semiconductor-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 185, 97 (1979).

Egerton, R. F.

R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 8.

Eriksson, T. S.

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fallon, P.

A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. C. C.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

Festenberg, C. v.

J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.

Fetterman, H. R.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, M.

Granqvist, C. G.

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxygluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, C. B.

C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown from VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, C. H.

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, S. D.

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hansen, C. R. Aita, “Low Temperature Reactive Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 660–663 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hensler, D. H.

R. A. Rozgonyi, D. H. Hensler, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 5, 194–199 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hevesi, I.

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirashima, H.

H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, J.

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. S.-W.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, T.

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ide, M.

H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, G. V.

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 2–5 (1985).

Kao, M. L.

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Khan, K. A.

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxygluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Khasina, E. I.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Koretskaya, S. T.

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Kornetov, V. N.

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Kosuge, K.

K. Kosuge, “The Phase Diagram and Phase Transition of the V2O3–V2O5 System,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 1613 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Krasutsky, N. J.

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kusano, E.

E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. C.

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 2–5 (1985).

Liu, Y.-L.

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Michailovits, L.

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

Mokerov, V. G.

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Mokrousov, V. V.

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Morin, F. J.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R. A.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nadkarni, G. S.

G. S. Nadkarni, V. S. Shirodkar, “Experiment and Theory for Switching in Al/V2O5/Al Devices,” Thin Solid Films 105, 115–129 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. M.

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

Niklasson, G. A.

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, L. A.

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Parker, C. D.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Perrotti, S. J.

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

Phan, Liem

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Polito, W. J.

G. A. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Preparation of Thin Films of Vanadium (Di-, Sesqui-, and Pent-) Oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 56–57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Potember, R. S.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.

Rakov, A. V.

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Rauh, R. D.

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

Razavi, A.

A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rozgonyi, G. A.

G. A. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Preparation of Thin Films of Vanadium (Di-, Sesqui-, and Pent-) Oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 56–57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rozgonyi, R. A.

R. A. Rozgonyi, D. H. Hensler, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 5, 194–199 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ryabova, L. A.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Sato, S.

S. Sato, Y. Seino, “Electrochromism in Evaporated WO3–MoO3–V2O5 Films,” Electron. Commun. Jpn 65-C, 104–111 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Savitskii, V. G.

E. V. Dorozhko, V. G. Savitskii, “Optical Absorption of Vanadium Pentoxide in the Energy Range 1.0–5.5 eV,” Soc. Phys. Solid State 19, 555–557 (1977).

Scott, M. W.

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Seino, Y.

S. Sato, Y. Seino, “Electrochromism in Evaporated WO3–MoO3–V2O5 Films,” Electron. Commun. Jpn 65-C, 104–111 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Serbinov, I. A.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Shirodkar, V. S.

G. S. Nadkarni, V. S. Shirodkar, “Experiment and Theory for Switching in Al/V2O5/Al Devices,” Thin Solid Films 105, 115–129 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Solovev, S. G.

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Speck, K. R.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stizza, S.

A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Theil, J. A.

E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

M. Thomas, E. E. Chain, “Free Carrier Plasma Diagnostics of Vanadium Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Ninth Symposium on Electronic Materials Processing and Characterization, Dallas, TX, (4–5 June 1990).

Thornton, J. A.

E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Varga, Zs.

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

Yoshida, T.

H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zakharchenya, B. P.

A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zavracky, P. M.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zembutsu, S.

Zeppenfeld, K.

J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.

Zharkova, E. A.

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

Am. Sci.

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and Surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. C. C. Fan, H. R. Fetterman, F. J. Bachner, P. M. Zavracky, C. D. Parker, “Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter-Wave Modulators and Polarizers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 11–13 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Khan, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Oxygluoride Coatings with Low Luminous Absorptance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 4 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Avtometriia

V. I. Belyakov, V. A. Dmitriyev, V. N. Kornetov, V. V. Mokrousov, L. A. Orlov, “Optical Constants of Two-Phase Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Avtometriia, 5, 114–116 (1981).

Electron. Commun. Jpn

S. Sato, Y. Seino, “Electrochromism in Evaporated WO3–MoO3–V2O5 Films,” Electron. Commun. Jpn 65-C, 104–111 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. S. Chivian, M. W. Scott, W. E. Case, N. J. Krasutsky, “An Improved Scan Laser with VO2 Programmable Mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 383–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. H. Griffiths, H. K. Eastwood, “Influence of Stoichiometry on the Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2201 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Aita, Y.-L. Liu, M. L. Kao, S. D. Hansen, “Optical Behavior of Sputter-Deposited Vanadium Pentoxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 749–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

G. A. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Preparation of Thin Films of Vanadium (Di-, Sesqui-, and Pent-) Oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 56–57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Hirashima, M. Ide, T. Yoshida, “Memory Switching of V2O5–TeO2 Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 86, 327–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

K. Kosuge, “The Phase Diagram and Phase Transition of the V2O3–V2O5 System,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 1613 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

R. A. Rozgonyi, D. H. Hensler, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 5, 194–199 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

E. E. Chain, “The Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 432–435 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-beam Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1836–1839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Kusano, J. A. Theil, J. A. Thornton, “Deposition of Vanadium Oxide Films by Direct-current Magnetron Reactive Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1663–1667 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Razavi, T. Hughes, J. Antinovitch, J. Hoffman, “Temperature Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Radio-Frequency Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1310–1313 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Razavi, L. Bobyak, P. Fallon, “The Effects of Biasing and Annealing on the Optical Properties of RF Sputtered VO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1391–1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hansen, C. R. Aita, “Low Temperature Reactive Sputter Deposition of Vanadium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 660–663 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Case, “Influence of Ion Beam Parameters on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Ion-Assisted Reactively Evaporated Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1762–1765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Symp. Proc.

K. R. Speck, H. S.-W. Hu, R. A. Murphy, R. S. Potember, “Vanadium Dioxide Films Grown from Vanadium Tetrakis (t-Butoxide) by the Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 121, 667–672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Bianconi, S. Stizza, R. Bernardini, “Critical Behavior of the Plasmon Resonance at the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4406–4411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 2–5 (1985).

D. D. Eden, “Some Applications Involving the Semiconductor-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 185, 97 (1979).

S. F. Cogan, N. M. Nguyen, S. J. Perrotti, R. D. Rauh, “Electrochromism in Sputtered Vanadium Pentoxide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1016, 57–62 (1988).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

D. Adler, “Mechanisms for Metal-Nonmetal Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 714–736 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Phys. Solid State

E. V. Dorozhko, V. G. Savitskii, “Optical Absorption of Vanadium Pentoxide in the Energy Range 1.0–5.5 eV,” Soc. Phys. Solid State 19, 555–557 (1977).

Sol. Energy Mater.

S. M. Babulanam, T. S. Eriksson, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Thermochromic VO2 Films for Energy-Efficient Windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 347–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, J. C. Lee, “Doped Vanadium Oxide for Optical Switching Films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 14, 205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Bugaev, B. P. Zakharchenya, F. A. Chudnovskii, “Use of Vanadium Oxide Films as a Holographic Recording Medium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 855–857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State

D. I. Bilenko, O. Y. Belobrovaya, E. A. Zharkova, L. A. Ryabova, I. A. Serbinov, E. I. Khasina, “Investigation of the Properties of Vanadium Dioxide in the Millimeter Wavelength Range Near the Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 18, 1153–1155 (1976).

B. S. Borisov, S. T. Koretskaya, V. G. Mokerov, A. V. Rakov, S. G. Solovev, “Electrical and Optical Properties of VO2 Near the Semiconductor-Semimetal Transition Point,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 12, 1763–1769 (1971).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

F. A. Chudnovskii, “Metal-Semiconductor Phase Transition in Vanadium Oxides and Technical Applications,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

Thin Solid Films

C. B. Greenberg, “Undoped and Doped VO2 Films Grown from VO(OC3H7)3,” Thin Solid Films 110, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Nadkarni, V. S. Shirodkar, “Experiment and Theory for Switching in Al/V2O5/Al Devices,” Thin Solid Films 105, 115–129 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Chain, D. M. Byrne, “Microstructural Information Related to Thin Film Optical Measurements,” Thin Solid Films 181, 323–332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Michailovits, I. Hevesi, Liem Phan, Zs. Varga, “Determination of the Optical Constants and Thickness of Amorphous V2O5 Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 102, 71–76 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. E. Chain, “Infrared Optical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films,” IEEE Catalog No. 89TH0257-6 (IEEE, New York, 1989), pp. 229–232.

M. Thomas, E. E. Chain, “Free Carrier Plasma Diagnostics of Vanadium Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Ninth Symposium on Electronic Materials Processing and Characterization, Dallas, TX, (4–5 June 1990).

J. Daniels, C. v. Festenberg, H. Raether, K. Zeppenfeld, Optical Constants of Solids by Electron Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970), p. 78.

R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 8.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical and electronic switching properties of thin film VO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance variation with temperature at 3.4 μm, also scanning electron micrographs for vanadium dioxide films deposited at three different temperatues.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the room temperature optical constants at 3.4 μm for vanadium oxide films as a function of deposition oxygen content: ●, refractive index n and ▲, extinction coefficient k.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reduction of critical temperature Tc in MxV1−xO2, dTc/dM with M = Nb, Ta, Mo, and W for films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition (RIBS) and the solgel process. The method of deposition is indicated in each case. (Adapted from Jorgenson and Lee24 and Speck et al.25)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance and transmittance vs wavelength for VO2 and VOxFy at 25°C and 80°C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Infrared transmittance of sputtered VO2 and V2O5 at 25°C and 80°C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance vs wavelength for V2O5 and V2−xMxO5 with M = Li, Mo, and W (adapted from Sato and Seino14 and Cogan et al.15): (a) 1000-Å V2O5 film; (b) 1000-Å Li0.78V2O5 film; (c) 6000-Å V2O5 film; (d) 6000-Å film of 60% WO3 in V2O5; and (e) 6000-Å film of 40% MoO3 in V2O5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dielectric function ɛ = ɛ1 + 2, as determined from reflectance and transmittance measurements at λ = 3.4 μm, for sputtered vanadium oxide films.

Tables (2)

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Table I Variation of the Room Temperature Optical Constants n and k at 3.4 μm for Sputtered Vanadium Oxide Films as Dependent on the Oxygen Fraction in the Deposition ion Beam

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Table II Dielectric Function ɛ = ɛ1 + k2 at λ = 3.4 μ for Sputtered Vanadium Oxide Films with the Bounds Theory Prediction of the Volume Fraction of VO2 Contained in the Films

Equations (1)

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energy - loss function = Im ( - 1 ɛ ) = ɛ 2 ɛ 1 2 + ɛ 2 2 .

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