Abstract

The performance of a multilayer coated diffraction grating has been evaluated at EUV wavelengths both in terms of absolute efficiency and spectral resolution. The application of a ten-layer Ir/Si multilayer coating to a 3600-lines/mm blazed toroidal replica grating produced a factor of 9 enhancement in peak efficiency near the design wavelength ~30 nm in first order, without degrading its excellent quasistigmatic spectral resolution. The measured EUV efficiency peaked at 3.3% and was improved over the full spectral range between 25 and 35 nm compared with the premultilayer replica which had a standard gold coating. In addition, the grating’s spectral resolution of >5000 was maintained.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of Layered Synthetic Microstructures for Narrowband Reflectivity at Soft X-Ray and EUV Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2757–2763 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).
  7. B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Osantowski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; private communication.
  21. W. R. Hunter, “Observation of Absorption Edges in the EUV by Transmittance Measurements through Thin Unbacked Metal Films,” in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abeles, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 136–146.
  22. W. R. Hunter, “On the Optical Constants of Metals at Wavelengths Shorter than their Critical Wavelength,” J. Phys. Paris 25, 154–160 (1964).
  23. W. R. Hunter, Sachs-Freeman Associates; private communication.
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    [CrossRef]

1990 (5)

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Diffraction Gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (4)

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. C. Cruddace, “Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating Performance in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Gratings in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1160, 648–654 (1989).

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588–1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

R. C. Catura, L. Golub, “XUV Multilayered Optics for Astrophysics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1741–1746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (2)

J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered Synthetic Microstructures as Bragg Diffractors for X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet: Theory and Predicted Performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

1964 (1)

W. R. Hunter, “On the Optical Constants of Metals at Wavelengths Shorter than their Critical Wavelength,” J. Phys. Paris 25, 154–160 (1964).

Barbee, T. W.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588–1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Gratings in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1160, 648–654 (1989).

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. C. Cruddace, “Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating Performance in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

T. W. Barbee, S. Mrowka, M. C. Hettrick, “Molybdenum–Silicon Multilayer Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 883–886 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered Synthetic Microstructures as Bragg Diffractors for X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet: Theory and Predicted Performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bixler, J. V.

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Gratings in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1160, 648–654 (1989).

Bradford, A. P.

Brookover, W. J.

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

Catura, R. C.

R. C. Catura, L. Golub, “XUV Multilayered Optics for Astrophysics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1741–1746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Condor, C. E.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Diffraction Gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruddace, R. C.

Cruddace, R. G.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of Layered Synthetic Microstructures for Narrowband Reflectivity at Soft X-Ray and EUV Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2757–2763 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, D. D.

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Gratings in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1160, 648–654 (1989).

Epstein, G. L.

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gill, J. P.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

Golub, L.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Catura, L. Golub, “XUV Multilayered Optics for Astrophysics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1741–1746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gum, J. S.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Diffraction Gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gursky, H.

Haisch, B. M.

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

Hass, G.

Herant, M.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M. C.

Hoover, R. B.

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

Hunter, W. R.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. C. Cruddace, “Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating Performance in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, G. F. Jacobus, W. R. Hunter, “Optical Properties of Evaporated Iridium Films in the Vacuum Ultraviolet from 500 Å to 2000 Å,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758–762 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, “On the Optical Constants of Metals at Wavelengths Shorter than their Critical Wavelength,” J. Phys. Paris 25, 154–160 (1964).

W. R. Hunter, Sachs-Freeman Associates; private communication.

W. R. Hunter, “Observation of Absorption Edges in the EUV by Transmittance Measurements through Thin Unbacked Metal Films,” in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abeles, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 136–146.

Jacobus, G. F.

Joki, E. G.

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

Kalata, K.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Lindblom, J. F.

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

Lovas, I.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meekins, J. F.

Mrowka, S.

Neupert, W. M.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, G.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osantowski, J. F.

Pardo, F.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. C. Cruddace, “Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating Performance in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottman, G. J.

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

Spiller, E.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, “Reflective Multilayer Coatings for the Far UV Region,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2333–2338 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R. J.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Diffraction Gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Toft, A. R.

Underwood, J. H.

van Patten, R. A.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

Walker, A. B. C.

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

Whittmore, T. E.

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

Wilczynski, J.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Paris (1)

W. R. Hunter, “On the Optical Constants of Metals at Wavelengths Shorter than their Critical Wavelength,” J. Phys. Paris 25, 154–160 (1964).

Nature London (1)

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-Arcsecond Observations of the Solar X-ray Corona,” Nature London 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (2)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a Tungsten/Carbon Multilayer-Coated Blazed Grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the Normal-Incidence X-Ray Reflectance of a Molybdenum-Silicon Multilayer on a 200-l/mm Grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (4)

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of Multilayer Coated Gratings in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1160, 648–654 (1989).

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. van Patten, J. P. Gill, “Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet Images of the Solar Atmosphere with Normal Incidence Multilayer Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 316–324 (1988).

B. M. Haisch, T. E. Whittmore, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, G. J. Rottman, “A Multilayer X-Ray Mirror for Solar Photometric Imaging Flown on a Sounding Rocket,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 982, 38–45 (1988).

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “EUV Performance of a Multilayer Coated High-Density Toroidal Grating,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1343, 566–575 (1990).

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

R. C. Catura, L. Golub, “XUV Multilayered Optics for Astrophysics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1741–1746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588–1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. B. C. Walker, T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover, J. F. Lindblom, “Soft X-Ray Images of the Solar Corona with a Normal Incidence Cassegrain Multilayer Telescope,” Science 241, 1781–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

W. M. Neupert, G. L. Epstein, R. J. Thomas, U. Feldman, “A Solar Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph for Shuttle/Spacelab,” Space Sci. Rev. 29, 425–429 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. R. Hunter, Sachs-Freeman Associates; private communication.

J. F. Osantowski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; private communication.

W. R. Hunter, “Observation of Absorption Edges in the EUV by Transmittance Measurements through Thin Unbacked Metal Films,” in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abeles, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 136–146.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test setup for toroidal grating blanks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NIST grating evaluation chamber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute EUV efficiency of the SERTS test grating before (+) and after (×) multilayer coating. For comparison, the solid curve is the calculated theoretical reflectance of the design multilayer itself, scaled by a normalization factor of 0.14.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Enhancement in first-order EUV efficiency for the SERTS multilayer coated grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Layout of the SERTS spectrograph entrance aperture.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

EUV Ne–He spectra produced with a gold coated grating (top) and with a multilayer coated grating (bottom).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microdensitometer traces of EUV Ne ii spectra produced with a gold coated grating (top and middle) and with a multilayer coated grating (bottom). The top curve is from SERTS-2 preflight tests; the middle one is from SERTS-3 preflight tests.

Tables (3)

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Table I SERTS Grating Parameters

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Table II SERTS Spectrograph Parameters

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Table III Measured Spectral Performance

Equations (2)

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R s = D ,             R t = ( L 2 + D 2 ) / D .
S = 14.7 × ( 63.67 - 55 ) / 63.67 = 2.0 mm ,

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