Abstract

A Meteorological Research Institute Mark II mobile lidar was developed for simultaneous measurements of ozone, temperature, and aerosols in the stratosphere. The lidar consists of an XeCl laser, a Nd:YAG laser, and an 80-cm diam receiving telescope. The laser beams at three wavelengths (308, 355, and 532 nm) can be almost simultaneously transmitted. The purpose of this lidar is to study, for example, the aerosol impact on the ozone layer through radiative and photochemical processes, the aerosol impact on the Umkehr measurements after violent volcanic eruptions, and the interaction between temperature and ozone. The performance of the lidar system and some data about ozone, aerosols, and temperature are described.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. “Model Predictions of Ozone Changes,” WMO Report No. 16, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Vol. 3, (1985), pp. 721–788.
  3. J. V. Dave, J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, “Results of a Comprehensive Theoretical Examination of the Optical Effects of Aerosols on the Umkehr Measurements,” Proceedings, WMO Technical Conference, Boulder, Environmental Report, MWO Geneva (1979), p. 15.
  4. G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).
  5. H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).
  6. G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).
  8. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, N. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer–Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Steinbrecht, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Lidar Setup for Daytime and Nighttime Probing of Stratospheric Ozone and Measurements in Polar and Equatorial Regions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3616–3624 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High-Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).
  15. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-Based Laser DIAL System for Long-Term Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3603–3612 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.
  17. T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).
  18. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. J. Megie, G. M. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. M. Bass, “The Ultraviolet Absorption Cross-Section of Ozone,” Final Report, NASA Contract No. S-40127B (1984).
  23. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  24. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 183, Optical Propagation in The Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-183 (1976).
  25. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and Their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, Electrochemical Concentration Cell Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Ozonesonde, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Satellite Measurements,” Geophys. Res. 95, 10,037–10,042 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (3)

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-Based Laser DIAL System for Long-Term Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3603–3612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and Their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, Electrochemical Concentration Cell Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Ozonesonde, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Satellite Measurements,” Geophys. Res. 95, 10,037–10,042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High-Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

W. Steinbrecht, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Lidar Setup for Daytime and Nighttime Probing of Stratospheric Ozone and Measurements in Polar and Equatorial Regions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3616–3624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

1986 (1)

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

G. J. Megie, G. M. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (5)

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, N. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer–Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).

Akita, I.

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

Ancellet, G. M.

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, “The Ultraviolet Absorption Cross-Section of Ozone,” Final Report, NASA Contract No. S-40127B (1984).

Burris, J. F.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Butler, J. J.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Chanin, M. L.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, “Results of a Comprehensive Theoretical Examination of the Optical Effects of Aerosols on the Umkehr Measurements,” Proceedings, WMO Technical Conference, Boulder, Environmental Report, MWO Geneva (1979), p. 15.

DeLuisi, J. J.

J. V. Dave, J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, “Results of a Comprehensive Theoretical Examination of the Optical Effects of Aerosols on the Umkehr Measurements,” Proceedings, WMO Technical Conference, Boulder, Environmental Report, MWO Geneva (1979), p. 15.

Farman, J. C.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 183, Optical Propagation in The Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-183 (1976).

Ferrare, R.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).

Forlizzi, W.

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).

Frederick, J. E.

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S. M.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and Their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-Based Laser DIAL System for Long-Term Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3603–3612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High-Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

Hauchecorne, A.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida-Amano, S.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

Khono, J.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lindqvist, L. O.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-Based Laser DIAL System for Long-Term Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3603–3612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, N.

Mateer, C. L.

J. V. Dave, J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, “Results of a Comprehensive Theoretical Examination of the Optical Effects of Aerosols on the Umkehr Measurements,” Proceedings, WMO Technical Conference, Boulder, Environmental Report, MWO Geneva (1979), p. 15.

Mateer, J. J.

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

McCormick, M. P.

P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-Based Laser DIAL System for Long-Term Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3603–3612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, Electrochemical Concentration Cell Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Ozonesonde, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Satellite Measurements,” Geophys. Res. 95, 10,037–10,042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and Their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High-Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

McGee, T. J.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Megie, G.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G. J.

Miller, A. J.

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Minato, A.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Miyazoe, Y.

Mugnai, A.

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).

Nagasawa, C.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Newmann, P.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Megie, G. M. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reinsel, G. C.

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, K. W.

Russell, P. B.

Sasano, Y.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 183, Optical Propagation in The Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-183 (1976).

Shibata, T.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecht, W.

Sugimoto, N.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Swissler, T. J.

Tabata, I.

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

Tiao, G. C.

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tokunaga, M.

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, N. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer–Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

Wang, P. H.

P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Yamamura, H.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Khono, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. (1)

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, Electrochemical Concentration Cell Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Ozonesonde, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Satellite Measurements,” Geophys. Res. 95, 10,037–10,042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273–5280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone During the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2419–2431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, “Effects of Radiation Scattered by Aerosols on the Photodissociation of Ozone,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 949–961 (1978).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, J. J. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and Their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

O. Uchino, I. Tabata, K. Kai, I. Akita, “Five-Year Lidar Observational Results and Effects of El Chichon Particles on Umkehr Ozone Data,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 635–643 (1988).

Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue (1)

H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, O. Uchino, M. Maeda, “Effects of Aerosol Scattered Radiation on Minor Atmospheric Species Concentration in a One-Dimensional Model,” Mem. Nat. Polar Res. Special Issue 29, 201–212 (1983).

NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1)

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newmann, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” NASA-GSFC Tech. Doc. (1989).

Nature London (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature London 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High-Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

Other (5)

“Model Predictions of Ozone Changes,” WMO Report No. 16, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Vol. 3, (1985), pp. 721–788.

J. V. Dave, J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, “Results of a Comprehensive Theoretical Examination of the Optical Effects of Aerosols on the Umkehr Measurements,” Proceedings, WMO Technical Conference, Boulder, Environmental Report, MWO Geneva (1979), p. 15.

A. M. Bass, “The Ultraviolet Absorption Cross-Section of Ozone,” Final Report, NASA Contract No. S-40127B (1984).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 183, Optical Propagation in The Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-183 (1976).

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the MRI Mark II mobile lidar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the data acquisition electronics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart of the data acquisition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time chart of the control electronics for the MRI Mark II mobile lidar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response test of the receiving mechanical chopper using solar background radiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response test of the PMTs gate circuit using solar background radiation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Total number of photoelectrons received in a 1-km range interval for (a) 389,961 XeCl laser shots and (b) 97,500 Nd:YAG laser shots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profile of ozone concentration calculated by the DIAL technique using the signals in Figs. 7(a) and (b). The DZ is equal to the vertical resolution Δz defined in Eq. (5). The error bars represent statistical error ɛ1. The dotted line represents the ozone profile observed by a routine ozonesonde at Tateno.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 except for the dates of observation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 8 except for the dates of observation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature profiles measured by the MRI Mark II lidar. The error bars represent one standard deviation. For comparison, the rawinsonde data at Tateno are shown.

Figure 12
Figure 12

Vertical profiles of (a) scattering ratio and (b) backscattering coefficient at a wavelength of 532 nm. The error bars represent one standard deviation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Performance of the Laser Transmitter System of the MRI Mark II Mobile Lidar

Tables Icon

Table II Performance of the Receiver and Detector System of the MRI Mark II Mobile Lidar

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P i ( z ) = K i E i β i ( z ) δ z h c / λ n 2 exp { - 2 0 z [ α i ( z ) + n ( z ) σ i ] d z } ,
β i ( z ) = β R i ( z ) + β A i ( z ) ,
α i ( z ) = α R i ( z ) + α A i ( z ) ,
n ( z ) = 1 2 Δ σ d d z [ - ln P on ( z ) P off ( z ) + ln β on ( z ) β off ( z ) ] - α on ( z ) - α off ( z ) Δ σ ,
N = - 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ P ¯ on ( z ) P ¯ on ( z ) / P ¯ off ( z ) P ¯ off ( z ) ] - α ¯ R on - α ¯ R off Δ σ + B + E A ,
B = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ β on ( z ) β on ( z ) / β off ( z ) β off ( z ) ] ,
E A = - ( α ¯ A on - α ¯ A off ) Δ σ .
ɛ = ɛ 1 2 + ɛ 2 2 ,
ɛ 1 = 1 2 Δ σ N Δ z { i = on , off [ P ¯ i ( z ) + 2 P b P ¯ i ( z ) 2 + P ¯ i ( z ) + 2 P b P ¯ i ( z ) 2 ] } 1 / 2 ,
ɛ 2 = ( B + E A ) / N .
σ on ( 308 nm ) = 1.2 × 10 - 23 m 2 , σ off ( 355 nm ) = 6.3 × 10 - 27 m 2 .
R i ( z ) = [ β R i ( z ) + β A i ( z ) ] / β R i ( z ) .
B = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ β R on ( z ) R on ( z ) β R on ( z ) R on ( z ) / β R off ( z ) R off ( z ) β R off ( z ) R off ( z ) ] = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ R on ( z ) R on ( z ) / R off ( z ) R off ( z ) ] = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z [ R on ( z ) - 1 - R on ( z ) - 1 - R off ( z ) + 1 + R off ( z ) - 1 ]
B = 1 Δ σ [ ( λ on λ 532 ) 4 - α - ( λ off λ 532 ) 4 - α ] R 532 ( z ) - R 532 ( z ) Δ z .

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