Abstract

Tetramethylguanidine (TMG) used as the electron donor in conjunction with methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) can produce bright reflection holograms recorded at 633 nm at an exposure level of 50 mJ/cm2. Thus DCG hologram recording and some independence from suppliers of proprietary holographic recording materials is now open to all those with low power He–Ne lasers. The high alkalinity of the system allows the unexposed coated material to have an effective lifetime at room temperature of weeks rather than days. Its low dichromate content has an environmental advantage over the usual DCG formulations. Replacement of methylene blue by eosin can produce similar photosensitivity to 514 nm. The superiority of TMG over previously reported electron donors used with MBDCG is discussed.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of External Electron Donor in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: an Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324–330 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. R. Merkel, W. J. Nickerson, “Photochemistry of Riboflavine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 14, 303–306 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Oster, N. Wotherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836–4838 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Kayser, R. Young, “The Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Amines,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 395–401 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded in Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251–253 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Denisyuk, “On the Reproduction of the Optical Properties of an Object by the Wave Field of its Scattered Radiation,” Optics & Spectroscopy 18152–157 (1963).
  8. G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photomechanical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321–000 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556–558 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (2)

1974 (1)

R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded in Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Y. Denisyuk, “On the Reproduction of the Optical Properties of an Object by the Wave Field of its Scattered Radiation,” Optics & Spectroscopy 18152–157 (1963).

1960 (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photomechanical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321–000 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

G. Oster, N. Wotherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836–4838 (1957).
[CrossRef]

H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

J. R. Merkel, W. J. Nickerson, “Photochemistry of Riboflavine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 14, 303–306 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babu, S. S. C.

Bonneau, R.

R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B. J.

Changkakoti, R.

Denisyuk, Y.

Y. Denisyuk, “On the Reproduction of the Optical Properties of an Object by the Wave Field of its Scattered Radiation,” Optics & Spectroscopy 18152–157 (1963).

Fornier de Violet, P.

R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded in Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Joussot-Dubien, J.

R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kayser, R.

R. Kayser, R. Young, “The Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Amines,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 395–401 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kogasaka, K.

H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, M.

H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, T.

Leonard, C. D.

Merkel, J. R.

J. R. Merkel, W. J. Nickerson, “Photochemistry of Riboflavine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 14, 303–306 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickerson, W. J.

J. R. Merkel, W. J. Nickerson, “Photochemistry of Riboflavine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 14, 303–306 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obata, H.

H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ose, T.

Oster, G.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photomechanical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321–000 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Oster, N. Wotherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836–4838 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Oster, G. K.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photomechanical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321–000 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Pappu, S. V.

Sasaki, M.

Wotherspoon, N.

G. Oster, N. Wotherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836–4838 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

R. Kayser, R. Young, “The Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Amines,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 395–401 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

J. R. Merkel, W. J. Nickerson, “Photochemistry of Riboflavine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 14, 303–306 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Obata, K. Kogasaka, M. Koizumi, “Photochemical Reactions Between Methylene Blue and Tri, Di and Mono Methylamines,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 30, 136–147 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. Oster, N. Wotherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836–4838 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photomechanical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321–000 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded in Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251–253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Optics & Spectroscopy (1)

Y. Denisyuk, “On the Reproduction of the Optical Properties of an Object by the Wave Field of its Scattered Radiation,” Optics & Spectroscopy 18152–157 (1963).

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

R. Bonneau, P. Fornier de Violet, J. Joussot-Dubien, “Mechanism of Photoreduction of Thiazine Dyes by EDTA Studied by Flash Photolysis,” Photochem. Photobiol. 19, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Kayser, R. Young, “The Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Amines,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 395–401 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ethylenediamine–chromium chelate ring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonating structures of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine.

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