Abstract

We used a single-mode Pb-salt diode laser to quantify in situ the amount of ammonia generated during pyrolysis of pulverized coal in an entrained-flow reactor at 1225 K. The combination of wavelength modulation spectroscopy, a Herriott style multiple pass cell, rapid wavelength scanning (to eliminate noise due to turbulence and vibration) and a novel etalon fringe suppression technique provided a minimum detectable absorbance of 2 × 10−6 (SNR = 1, 1-Hz bandwidth) corresponding to 0.04-ppm ammonia at 1225 K. This is a 4-order-of-magnitude improvement over CO2 laser based ammonia detectors and is ~2000 times more sensitive than electrochemical detection methods (for equal integration times).

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Quantum Limited FM-Spectroscopy with a Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, “High-Sensitivity Spectroscopy with a Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 719–721 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in Situ Measurements and Diurnal Variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km Region Using an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D10, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. R. Webster, “Stratospheric Composition Measurements of Earth and Titan Using High-Resolution Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 239–248 (1988).
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  11. M. Lowenstein, “Diode Laser Harmonic Spectroscopy Applied to in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. J. Haussmann, C. H. Kruger, “Rapid Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Montana Rosebud Subbituminous Coal,” in Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1989), pp. 223–230.
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  22. P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. R. Janik, C. B. Carlisle, T. F. Gallagher, “Two-Tone Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1070–1074 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. E. Cooper, J. P. Watjen, “Two-Tone Optical Heterodyne Spectroscopy with a Tunable Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 606–608 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. E. Cooper, R. E. Warren, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy with Lead-Salt Diode Lasers: A Comparison of Single-Tone and Two-Tone Techniques,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3726–3732 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Two-Tone Optical Heterodyne Spectroscopy Using Buried Double Heterostructure Lead-Salt Diode Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4438–4444 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. S. Eng, A. W. Mantz, T. R. Todd, “Low-Frequency Noise Characteristics of Pb-Salt Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1088–1091 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Wideband Noise Source Characteristics of a Lead-Salt Diode Laser: Possibility of Quantum Noise Limited TDLAS Performance,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1638–1642 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Altmann, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, “Two-Mirror Multipass Absorption Cell,” Appl. Opt. 20, 995–999 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. S. Rothman et al., “HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4095 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. L. Poynter, J. S. Margolis, “The ν2 Spectrum of NH3,” J. Mol. Phys. 51, 393–412 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).
  33. V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collision Width Measurements of CO in Combustion Gases Using A Tunable Diode Laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 339–347 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. R. Webster, “Brewster-Plate Spoiler: A Novel Method for Reducing the Amplitude of Interference Fringes that Limit Tunable-Laser Absorption Sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity Limits of a Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer, with Application to the Detection of N2O at the 100-ppt Level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. D. J. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers: Two-Tone Modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1989

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Quantum Limited FM-Spectroscopy with a Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hayward, D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “High Sensitivity Transient Spectroscopy Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 25–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmidtke, W. Kohn, U. Klocke, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedal, H. Wolf, “Diode Laser Spectrometer for Monitoring Up to Five Atmospheric Trace Gases in Unattended Operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3665–3670 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Two-Tone Optical Heterodyne Spectroscopy Using Buried Double Heterostructure Lead-Salt Diode Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4438–4444 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Wideband Noise Source Characteristics of a Lead-Salt Diode Laser: Possibility of Quantum Noise Limited TDLAS Performance,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1638–1642 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical Interference Fringe Reduction in Laser Absorption Experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Neckel, J. Wolfrum, “In-Situ Measurement of Ammonia with a 13CO2-Waveguide Laser System,” Proc Soc Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 952, 822–826 (1988).

D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, “High-Sensitivity Spectroscopy with a Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 719–721 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Measurements in the HCl 3 ← 0 Band Using a Near-IR InGaAsP Diode Laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5009–5015 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, “Stratospheric Composition Measurements of Earth and Titan Using High-Resolution Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 239–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Lowenstein, “Diode Laser Harmonic Spectroscopy Applied to in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Airborne Measurements of Humidity Using a Single-Mode Pb-Salt Diode Laser,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2558–2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in Situ Measurements and Diurnal Variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km Region Using an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D10, 11,931–11,950 (1987).

L. S. Rothman et al., “HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Cooper, R. E. Warren, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy with Lead-Salt Diode Lasers: A Comparison of Single-Tone and Two-Tone Techniques,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3726–3732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

1984

R. L. Poynter, J. S. Margolis, “The ν2 Spectrum of NH3,” J. Mol. Phys. 51, 393–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

D. J. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers: Two-Tone Modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collision Width Measurements of CO in Combustion Gases Using A Tunable Diode Laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 339–347 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Altmann, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, “Two-Mirror Multipass Absorption Cell,” Appl. Opt. 20, 995–999 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

1979

Altmann, J.

Anlauf, K.

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ballik, E. A.

Baumgart, R.

Benner, D. C.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Bomse, D. S.

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, unpublished results.

Brauchle, C.

Butler, J. E.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

Carlisle, C. B.

Cassidy, D. J.

D. J. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers: Two-Tone Modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

J. E. Hayward, D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “High Sensitivity Transient Spectroscopy Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 25–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Celii, F. G.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

Chu, F.

P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

El-Sherbiny, M.

Eng, R. S.

Gallagher, T. F.

Garside, B. K.

Gehrtz, M.

Hanson, R. K.

P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collision Width Measurements of CO in Combustion Gases Using A Tunable Diode Laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 339–347 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haussmann, G. J.

G. J. Haussmann, C. H. Kruger, “Rapid Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Montana Rosebud Subbituminous Coal,” in Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1989), pp. 223–230.

Hayward, J. E.

J. E. Hayward, D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “High Sensitivity Transient Spectroscopy Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 25–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. F.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Iguichi, T.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Janik, G. R.

Johnston, H. S.

Klocke, U.

Knothe, M.

Kohn, W.

Kruger, C. H.

G. J. Haussmann, C. H. Kruger, “Rapid Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Montana Rosebud Subbituminous Coal,” in Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1989), pp. 223–230.

Lenth, W.

Lowenstein, M.

M. Lowenstein, “Diode Laser Harmonic Spectroscopy Applied to in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mantz, A. W.

Margolis, J. S.

R. L. Poynter, J. S. Margolis, “The ν2 Spectrum of NH3,” J. Mol. Phys. 51, 393–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in Situ Measurements and Diurnal Variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km Region Using an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D10, 11,931–11,950 (1987).

Mayne, L. K.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, J. Wolfrum, “In-Situ Measurement of Ammonia with a 13CO2-Waveguide Laser System,” Proc Soc Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 952, 822–826 (1988).

Nelson, H. H.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

Pehrsson, P. E.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

Perry, B. N.

Perry, M. G.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pokrowsky, P.

P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

R. L. Poynter, J. S. Margolis, “The ν2 Spectrum of NH3,” J. Mol. Phys. 51, 393–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. E. Hayward, D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “High Sensitivity Transient Spectroscopy Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 25–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers: Two-Tone Modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity Limits of a Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer, with Application to the Detection of N2O at the 100-ppt Level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedal, W. J.

Rinsland, C. P.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

Sachse, G. W.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, G.

Sidney, B. D.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Slemr, F.

Smith, M. A. H.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

Stein, A.

Todd, T. R.

Varghese, P. L.

P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collision Width Measurements of CO in Combustion Gases Using A Tunable Diode Laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 339–347 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. O.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.t.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

Wang, H.-t.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R. E.

Watjen, J. P.

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster, “Stratospheric Composition Measurements of Earth and Titan Using High-Resolution Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 239–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in Situ Measurements and Diurnal Variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km Region Using an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D10, 11,931–11,950 (1987).

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-Plate Spoiler: A Novel Method for Reducing the Amplitude of Interference Fringes that Limit Tunable-Laser Absorption Sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Werle, P.

Wiebe, A.

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, H.

Wolfrum, J.

H. Neckel, J. Wolfrum, “In-Situ Measurement of Ammonia with a 13CO2-Waveguide Laser System,” Proc Soc Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 952, 822–826 (1988).

Young, A. T.

Zapka, W.

P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Airborne Measurements of Humidity Using a Single-Mode Pb-Salt Diode Laser,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2558–2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Measurements in the HCl 3 ← 0 Band Using a Near-IR InGaAsP Diode Laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5009–5015 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schmidtke, W. Kohn, U. Klocke, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedal, H. Wolf, “Diode Laser Spectrometer for Monitoring Up to Five Atmospheric Trace Gases in Unattended Operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3665–3670 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical Interference Fringe Reduction in Laser Absorption Experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stein, T. R. Todd, B. N. Perry, “Carbon Dioxide Laser Monitor for NH3 in Flue Gas,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3378–3381 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Cooper, R. E. Warren, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy with Lead-Salt Diode Lasers: A Comparison of Single-Tone and Two-Tone Techniques,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3726–3732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Two-Tone Optical Heterodyne Spectroscopy Using Buried Double Heterostructure Lead-Salt Diode Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4438–4444 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Eng, A. W. Mantz, T. R. Todd, “Low-Frequency Noise Characteristics of Pb-Salt Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1088–1091 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Wideband Noise Source Characteristics of a Lead-Salt Diode Laser: Possibility of Quantum Noise Limited TDLAS Performance,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1638–1642 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Altmann, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, “Two-Mirror Multipass Absorption Cell,” Appl. Opt. 20, 995–999 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman et al., “HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity Limits of a Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer, with Application to the Detection of N2O at the 100-ppt Level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

D. J. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers: Two-Tone Modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hayward, D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “High Sensitivity Transient Spectroscopy Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 25–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Brauchle, “Quantum Limited FM-Spectroscopy with a Lead-Salt Diode Laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.-t. Wang, J. E. Butler, “Infrared Detection of Gaseous Species During the Filament Assisted Growth of Diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2043–2045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

G. I. Mackay, H. I. Schiff, A. Wiebe, K. Anlauf, “Measurements of NO2, H2CO and HNO3 by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy During the 1985 Claremont Intercomparison Study,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1555–1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguichi, L. K. Mayne, H. I. Schiff, “Measurements of Formaldehyde in the Troposphere by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 119–137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast Response, High-Precision Carbon Monoxide Sensor Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D2, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in Situ Measurements and Diurnal Variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km Region Using an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92 D10, 11,931–11,950 (1987).

J. Mol. Phys.

R. L. Poynter, J. S. Margolis, “The ν2 Spectrum of NH3,” J. Mol. Phys. 51, 393–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, B. D. Sidney, “Diode Laser Measurements of Air and Nitrogen Broadening in the v2 Bands of HDO, H216O, and H218O,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 117, 403–407 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collision Width Measurements of CO in Combustion Gases Using A Tunable Diode Laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 339–347 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Stratospheric Composition Measurements of Earth and Titan Using High-Resolution Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 239–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Lowenstein, “Diode Laser Harmonic Spectroscopy Applied to in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, F. Chu, G. C. Bjorklund, “High Frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 44, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc Soc Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

H. Neckel, J. Wolfrum, “In-Situ Measurement of Ammonia with a 13CO2-Waveguide Laser System,” Proc Soc Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 952, 822–826 (1988).

Other

G. J. Haussmann, C. H. Kruger, “Rapid Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Montana Rosebud Subbituminous Coal,” in Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1989), pp. 223–230.

F. G. Celii, P. E. Pehrsson, H.t. Wang, H. H. Nelson, J. E. Butler, “In Situ Detection of Gaseous Species in the Filament Assisted Diamond Growth Environment,” in First International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Tokyo (1988).

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, unpublished results.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the electronics used to control the laser and to process and average the second derivative absorbance signal. Solid arrows denote electrical paths referenced to the computer and CAMAC crate common; open arrows indicate circuit paths sharing common with the diode laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the direct absorption spectrum and the second harmonic (2f) spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Second harmonic (2f) diode laser absorbance spectra of pyrolysis gases with (upper trace) and without (lower trace) 33-mg s−1 Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal added to the argon flow.

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