Abstract

Simultaneous spatially and temporally resolved measurements of N2 and O2 mole fractions and of temperature are performed using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The CARS setup is used with the crossed-beam arrangement (BOXCARS) and nonresonant-background suppression. The technique employs two Stokes lasers, broadband and narrowband, in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Temperature and N2 mole fractions are obtained by single-shot multiplex CARS spectra of N2 using the broadband laser; O2 mole fractions are deduced from a particular rovibrational Q-line of O2 using the narrowband dye laser. The single-shot detectivity limit is better than 0.4% for oxygen at 2200 K and atmospheric pressure, i.e., 1016 molecules × cm−3. The capability of the technique for measuring 2-D probability density functions is demonstrated in the simple cases of an isothermal jet and a laminar premixed flame of air and ethylene. The experimental work reveals grave difficulties in using CARS for precise measurements of mole fractions: appreciable signals can be created very far from the geometrical focus; beam disruption by turbulence and the Stark effect cause large mole fraction measurement errors. These problems are discussed. Referencing the mole fraction of the second species by nitrogen mole fraction is demonstrated to be a solution for the turbulence effect in premixed flames.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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