Abstract

A compact scanning optical microscope (SOM) based on the optics and the mechanics of a compact disc (CD) player has been constructed. The low weight and compact construction of a CD player offer the possibility of scanning the entire microscope with respect to a stationary object. The compact scanning optical microscope is capable of measuring object-induced amplitude and phase changes of the light and is equipped with automatic focusing. The laser in the CD player is replaced by the endface of a single-mode fiber. The end face of the fiber acts both as the emitting source and as a point detector. Thus confocal detection is obtained without the problem of positioning a point detector with respect to a point source.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Wilson, “Imaging Properties and Applications of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” Appl. Phys. 22, 119–128 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, Ch. Ihrig, “Application of the Confocal Beam Scanning Microscopy to the Measurement of Submicron Structures,” Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 101–106 (1988).
  5. Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. P. H. Benschop, “Confocal Differential Phase Contrast in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 90–96 (1987).
  7. G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.
  8. N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential Phase Contrast in a STEM,” Optik Weimar 41, 452–456 (1974).
  9. G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.
  10. R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).
  11. W. G. Ophey, J. P. H. Benschop, “Laser to Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 839, 166–174 (1987).
  12. L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics (Dekker, New York, 1987), p. 16.
  13. H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser Beams and Resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1567 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 83.
  15. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, U.K., 1983), p. 395.
  16. R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longman, London, 1973), p. 339.
  17. J. P. H. Benschop, “Signal Detection and Interpretation in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Twente, The Netherlands (1989), p. 27.
  18. A. R. Carlini, T. Wilson, “The Role of Pinhole Size and Postion in Confocal Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 97–100 (1987).
  19. J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

1989 (1)

J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

1988 (1)

W. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, Ch. Ihrig, “Application of the Confocal Beam Scanning Microscopy to the Measurement of Submicron Structures,” Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 101–106 (1988).

1987 (4)

Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. P. H. Benschop, “Confocal Differential Phase Contrast in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 90–96 (1987).

A. R. Carlini, T. Wilson, “The Role of Pinhole Size and Postion in Confocal Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 97–100 (1987).

W. G. Ophey, J. P. H. Benschop, “Laser to Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 839, 166–174 (1987).

1986 (1)

R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).

1983 (1)

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Wilson, “Imaging Properties and Applications of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” Appl. Phys. 22, 119–128 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential Phase Contrast in a STEM,” Optik Weimar 41, 452–456 (1974).

1966 (1)

Barends, P.

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
[Crossref]

Benschop, J. P. H.

J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

J. P. H. Benschop, “Confocal Differential Phase Contrast in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 90–96 (1987).

W. G. Ophey, J. P. H. Benschop, “Laser to Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 839, 166–174 (1987).

J. P. H. Benschop, “Signal Detection and Interpretation in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Twente, The Netherlands (1989), p. 27.

Blom, P.

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, U.K., 1983), p. 395.

Bouwhuis, G.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

Braat, J.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

Braat, J. J. M.

R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).

Brakenhoff, G. J.

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
[Crossref]

Carlini, A. R.

A. R. Carlini, T. Wilson, “The Role of Pinhole Size and Postion in Confocal Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 97–100 (1987).

de Lang, H.

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential Phase Contrast in a STEM,” Optik Weimar 41, 452–456 (1974).

Dekkers, N. H.

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential Phase Contrast in a STEM,” Optik Weimar 41, 452–456 (1974).

Dortant, C. M.

R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).

Dosaka, S.

Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 83.

Horikawa, Y.

Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
[Crossref]

Huijser, H.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

Ihrig, Ch.

W. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, Ch. Ihrig, “Application of the Confocal Beam Scanning Microscopy to the Measurement of Submicron Structures,” Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 101–106 (1988).

Jeunhomme, L. B.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics (Dekker, New York, 1987), p. 16.

Kogelnik, H.

Li, T.

Longhurst, R. S.

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longman, London, 1973), p. 339.

Marsman, H. J. B.

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ophey, W. G.

W. G. Ophey, J. P. H. Benschop, “Laser to Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 839, 166–174 (1987).

Ossekoppele, M.

J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

Pasman, J.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

Schouhamer Immink, K.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

Stricker, B.

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

van Rosmalen, G.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

van Rosmalen, G. E.

J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

Wijnaendts van Resandt, R. W.

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

Wijnaendts van Resandt, W. W.

W. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, Ch. Ihrig, “Application of the Confocal Beam Scanning Microscopy to the Measurement of Submicron Structures,” Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 101–106 (1988).

Wilson, T.

A. R. Carlini, T. Wilson, “The Role of Pinhole Size and Postion in Confocal Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 97–100 (1987).

T. Wilson, “Imaging Properties and Applications of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” Appl. Phys. 22, 119–128 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, U.K., 1983), p. 395.

Ymamoto, M.

Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
[Crossref]

Zwiers, R. J. M.

R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Wilson, “Imaging Properties and Applications of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” Appl. Phys. 22, 119–128 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. Oxford (2)

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, “Confocal Scanning Light Microscopy with High Aperture Immersion Lenses,” J. Microsc. Oxford 117, 219–232 (1979).
[Crossref]

Y. Horikawa, M. Ymamoto, S. Dosaka, “Laser Scanning Microscope: Differential Phase Images,” J. Microsc. Oxford 148, 1–10 (1987).
[Crossref]

Optik Weimar (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential Phase Contrast in a STEM,” Optik Weimar 41, 452–456 (1974).

Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

W. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, Ch. Ihrig, “Application of the Confocal Beam Scanning Microscopy to the Measurement of Submicron Structures,” Proc. Soc. Phot-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 101–106 (1988).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

J. P. H. Benschop, “Confocal Differential Phase Contrast in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 90–96 (1987).

A. R. Carlini, T. Wilson, “The Role of Pinhole Size and Postion in Confocal Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 809, 97–100 (1987).

J. P. H. Benschop, M. Ossekoppele, G. E. van Rosmalen, “Miniature Scanning Optical Microscope Based on Compact Disc Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 110, 1139–116 (1989).

R. J. M. Zwiers, J. J. M. Braat, C. M. Dortant, “A Replicated Bi-aspherical Readout Lens for Optical Disc Systems.” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 53–57 (1986).

W. G. Ophey, J. P. H. Benschop, “Laser to Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 839, 166–174 (1987).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. J. B. Marsman, B. Stricker, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, “Mechanical Scan System for Microscopic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1047–1052 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 81.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, H. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1985), p. 76.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics (Dekker, New York, 1987), p. 16.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 83.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, U.K., 1983), p. 395.

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longman, London, 1973), p. 339.

J. P. H. Benschop, “Signal Detection and Interpretation in Scanning Optical Microscopy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Twente, The Netherlands (1989), p. 27.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CD reading head containing the laser, beam splitter, collimator and objective lenses, and detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the confocal compact SOM. The laser has been replaced by the endface of a monomode fiber. On the other end of the fiber the light from the laser is coupled into the fiber and the light coming out of the fiber is focused onto a detector which gives the confocal signal (D5).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Compact SOM with confocal detection. On the left-hand side of the photograph the reading head of the CD player, mounted on the scan system, is visible. On the right-hand side the optics which couples the light emitted from the laser in the fiber is visible. The confocal detector which detects the light transmitted back through the fiber is also visible on the right-hand side.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing of the resonant scanner.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Image of 2.0-μm lines, holes, and islands of resist on silicon obtained with PI detection. (b) Image of 2.0-μm lines, holes, and islands of resist on silicon obtained with DPC detection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The 200- × 200-μm2 image of an aspheric mold obtained with PI detection and no autofocus. (b) The 200- × 200-μm2 image of an aspheric mold obtained with confocal detection and no autofocus. (c) The 200- × 200-μm2 image of an aspheric mold obtained with confocal detection and autofocus. (d) The 200- × 200-μm2 image of an aspheric mold obtained with DPC detection and autofocus.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters of the Compact Disc Reading Head Used In this Work

Tables Icon

Table II Influence of the Detection Radius on the Steepness of the Confocal Response and the Suppression of Signals due to Objects Out of Focus

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

0 < V < 2 . 4 .
V = a 2 π λ n 1 2 n 2 2 ,
A ( edge ) = A 0 exp [ ( 1 . 1 · π · a · N A coll λ ) 2 ] ,
A ( edge ) = 0 . 170 · A 0 .
= 1 cos [ arcsin ( N A coll ) ] = 0 . 6 % .
ν cut off = 2 N A obj λ = 1 . 13 ( μ m 1 ) .

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