Abstract

Quasimonochromatic light sources, such as laser diodes and high power LEDs, are investigated to determine their suitability for zero path difference determination using white light fringes in a Michelson interferometer. Fringe visibility curves are theoretically determined for various combinations of light sources and compared with experimental results when used in a Michelson interferometer with a 25-m path length. A resolution of 2–3 μm was obtained for a pair of multimode laser diodes and also for a single multimode laser diode operated as an LED. This is more than adequate for the calibration of survey baselines.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Palmer, Optics Experiments and Demonstrations (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, 1962), pp. 147–157.
  2. G. R. Hanes, “Quantum Limit of Precision of Wavelength Determination,” Appl. Opt. 2, 465–470 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. M. Baird, L. E. Howlett, “The International Length Standard,” Appl. Opt. 2, 455–463 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Baird, “The Role of Interferometry in Long Distance Measurement,” Metrologia 4, 135–144 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. BIPM, “Documents Concerning the New Definition of the Metre,” Metrologia 19, 163–177 (1984).
  6. S. Iwasaki, T. Sakurai, “A Wavelength Calibration of Commercial Wavelength Stabilized He–Ne Laser,” Oyo Butsuri 49, 870–875 (1980), in Japanese.
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), pp. 316–323.

1984 (1)

BIPM, “Documents Concerning the New Definition of the Metre,” Metrologia 19, 163–177 (1984).

1980 (1)

S. Iwasaki, T. Sakurai, “A Wavelength Calibration of Commercial Wavelength Stabilized He–Ne Laser,” Oyo Butsuri 49, 870–875 (1980), in Japanese.

1968 (1)

K. M. Baird, “The Role of Interferometry in Long Distance Measurement,” Metrologia 4, 135–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

Baird, K. M.

K. M. Baird, “The Role of Interferometry in Long Distance Measurement,” Metrologia 4, 135–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Baird, L. E. Howlett, “The International Length Standard,” Appl. Opt. 2, 455–463 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), pp. 316–323.

Hanes, G. R.

Howlett, L. E.

Iwasaki, S.

S. Iwasaki, T. Sakurai, “A Wavelength Calibration of Commercial Wavelength Stabilized He–Ne Laser,” Oyo Butsuri 49, 870–875 (1980), in Japanese.

Palmer, C. H.

C. H. Palmer, Optics Experiments and Demonstrations (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, 1962), pp. 147–157.

Sakurai, T.

S. Iwasaki, T. Sakurai, “A Wavelength Calibration of Commercial Wavelength Stabilized He–Ne Laser,” Oyo Butsuri 49, 870–875 (1980), in Japanese.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), pp. 316–323.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Metrologia (2)

K. M. Baird, “The Role of Interferometry in Long Distance Measurement,” Metrologia 4, 135–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

BIPM, “Documents Concerning the New Definition of the Metre,” Metrologia 19, 163–177 (1984).

Oyo Butsuri (1)

S. Iwasaki, T. Sakurai, “A Wavelength Calibration of Commercial Wavelength Stabilized He–Ne Laser,” Oyo Butsuri 49, 870–875 (1980), in Japanese.

Other (2)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), pp. 316–323.

C. H. Palmer, Optics Experiments and Demonstrations (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, 1962), pp. 147–157.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visibility vs path difference for the addition of two singlemode laser diodes (curve 1) and two superluminescent LEDs (curve 2, dashed line). Wavelength separation is 40 nm in both cases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visibility vs path difference for a 787-nm multimode laser diode. Dashed curve indicates modified visibility curve due to effective spectral width of 3 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental arrangement used to investigate each light source: LD1 and LD-2, laser diodes; M1–M3, mirrors; BS1–BS3, beam splitters; L2, microscope objective; L1 and L3, lenses; R1 and R2, retroreflectors; C, compensating plate; and APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fringe envelope pattern for a 787-nm multimode laser diode source over a path difference of +2 to –5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Fringe envelope for a 780-nm single-mode laser diode with no modulation applied over 2 mm of carriage movement. (B) Fringe envelope with ∼12 mV of 450-MHz modulation for the same conditions as (A). (C) Fringe envelope with ∼96 mV of 450-MHz modulation over 2 mm of carriage movement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) Center and adjacent fringe envelope for a 670-nm multimode laser diode. (B) Center fringe envelope expanded 5×.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Center fringe envelope for the addition of two 670-nm multimode laser diodes with both lasers at the same temperature. (B) Same as (A) but with a temperature difference of 2°C. (C) Same as (A) but with a temperature difference of 5°C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(A) Center fringe envelope for 670-nm multimode laser diode under normal operation. (B) Same as (A) but under LED operation.

Tables (1)

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Table I Suitability for Zero Path Difference Determination

Equations (1)

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V exp { ( δ Δ K / 3.32 ) 2 } × | cos ( δ Δ K / 2 ) | ,

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