Abstract

Polarization interference microscopes are very simple instruments. They can be used in white light and enable the observation and measurement of transparent objects. Some new instruments are described, notably a device which works in reflected light and allows the study of curved reflecting surfaces.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Françon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).
  3. W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Beitraege zur Interferenzmikroskopie (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).
  4. A. A. Lebedeff, Rev. Opt. 9, 385 (1930).
  5. L. P. Johannson, An Interference Microscope for Rapid Measurements of Biological Objects. Cyto-Chemical Methods with Quantitative Aims (Academic Press, New York, 1957), p. 157.
  6. M. Françon, T. Yamamoto, Optica Acta 9, 395 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. H. Smith, Microscopic Interferometry, Modern Methods of Microscopy (Butterworths, London, 1956), p. 76.
  8. G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).
  9. G. Nomarski, “Dispositif interférentiel à polarisation pour l’étude des objects transparents ou opaques”, brevet d’invention du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (May1952).
  10. W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1960; Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

1962

M. Françon, T. Yamamoto, Optica Acta 9, 395 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1955

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

1951

1930

A. A. Lebedeff, Rev. Opt. 9, 385 (1930).

Françon, M.

M. Françon, T. Yamamoto, Optica Acta 9, 395 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. Françon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1951).
[CrossRef]

M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).

Johannson, L. P.

L. P. Johannson, An Interference Microscope for Rapid Measurements of Biological Objects. Cyto-Chemical Methods with Quantitative Aims (Academic Press, New York, 1957), p. 157.

Krug, W.

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Beitraege zur Interferenzmikroskopie (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1960; Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

Lebedeff, A. A.

A. A. Lebedeff, Rev. Opt. 9, 385 (1930).

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

G. Nomarski, “Dispositif interférentiel à polarisation pour l’étude des objects transparents ou opaques”, brevet d’invention du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (May1952).

Rienitz, J.

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1960; Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Beitraege zur Interferenzmikroskopie (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

Schultz, G.

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Beitraege zur Interferenzmikroskopie (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1960; Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

Smith, F. H.

F. H. Smith, Microscopic Interferometry, Modern Methods of Microscopy (Butterworths, London, 1956), p. 76.

Yamamoto, T.

M. Françon, T. Yamamoto, Optica Acta 9, 395 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Radium

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9 (1955).

Optica Acta

M. Françon, T. Yamamoto, Optica Acta 9, 395 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt.

A. A. Lebedeff, Rev. Opt. 9, 385 (1930).

Other

L. P. Johannson, An Interference Microscope for Rapid Measurements of Biological Objects. Cyto-Chemical Methods with Quantitative Aims (Academic Press, New York, 1957), p. 157.

M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Beitraege zur Interferenzmikroskopie (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

F. H. Smith, Microscopic Interferometry, Modern Methods of Microscopy (Butterworths, London, 1956), p. 76.

G. Nomarski, “Dispositif interférentiel à polarisation pour l’étude des objects transparents ou opaques”, brevet d’invention du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (May1952).

W. Krug, J. Rienitz, G. Schultz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1960; Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Savart polariscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modified Savart polariscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wollaston prism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modified Wollaston prism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interference microscope of Françon and Yamamoto.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interference microscope of Smith.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nomarski interference microscope.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Nomarski interference microscope in reflected light (plane object).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nippon Kogaku K.K. interference microscope in reflected light.

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