Abstract

An integrated optic wavelength-demultiplexer (IOWD) is proposed and demonstrated. A coplanar grating lens in a single-mode slab waveguide is utilized for wavelength separating and focusing functions. The grating lens and input/output channel waveguides are monolithically integrated in a waveguiding film on a rectangular Si substrate. The IOWD was designed for demultiplexing nine wavelengths from 0.778 to 0.802 μm (3-nm separation) with ≲–20-dB crosstalk. The device requires no additional collimating or focusing lenses and was fabricated by a planar process including an electron-beam writing technique. The demultiplexing principle is demonstrated by elementary experiments using single-mode laser diodes.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).
  3. T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.
  5. H. W. Yen, H. R. Friedrich, R. J. Morrison, G. L. Tangonan, “Planar Rowland Spectrometer for Fiber-Optic Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 6, 639–641 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Watanabe, K. Nosu, “Slab Waveguide Demultiplexer for Multimode Optical Transmission in the 1.0–1.4μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3588–3590 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Suhara, J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, “Integrated-Optic Wavelength Multi- and Demultiplexers Using a Chirped Grating and Ion-Exchanged Waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2195–2198 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Valette, P. Gidon, J. P. Jadot, “New Integrated Optical Multiplexer–Demultiplexer Realized on Silicon Substrate,” in Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Lamb, Eds. (SETG, Ltd., Glasgow, 1987), pp. 145–147.
  9. G. Hatakoshi, S. Tanaka, “Grating Lenses for Integrated Optics,” Opt. Lett. 2, 142–144 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, “Chirp-Grating Lens for Guided-Wave Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635–637 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1982 (2)

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, “Integrated-Optic Wavelength Multi- and Demultiplexers Using a Chirped Grating and Ion-Exchanged Waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2195–2198 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

1978 (2)

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, “Chirp-Grating Lens for Guided-Wave Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635–637 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Hatakoshi, S. Tanaka, “Grating Lenses for Integrated Optics,” Opt. Lett. 2, 142–144 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Atsumi, T.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Bryan, D. A.

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Dalke, E. A.

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Friedrich, H. R.

Fujima, H.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Gidon, P.

S. Valette, P. Gidon, J. P. Jadot, “New Integrated Optical Multiplexer–Demultiplexer Realized on Silicon Substrate,” in Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Lamb, Eds. (SETG, Ltd., Glasgow, 1987), pp. 145–147.

Handa, Y.

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hatakoshi, G.

Hong, C. S.

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Ito, T.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Jadot, J. P.

S. Valette, P. Gidon, J. P. Jadot, “New Integrated Optical Multiplexer–Demultiplexer Realized on Silicon Substrate,” in Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Lamb, Eds. (SETG, Ltd., Glasgow, 1987), pp. 145–147.

Kanazawa, M.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Katzir, A.

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Koyama, J.

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Leppihalme, M.

Livanos, A. C.

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. J.

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nosu, K.

Okuda, H.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Reed, W. R.

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Rice, R. R.

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, “Integrated-Optic Wavelength Multi- and Demultiplexers Using a Chirped Grating and Ion-Exchanged Waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2195–2198 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takami, M.

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

Tanaka, S.

Tangonan, G. L.

Thompson, D. E.

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, “Chirp-Grating Lens for Guided-Wave Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635–637 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

S. Valette, P. Gidon, J. P. Jadot, “New Integrated Optical Multiplexer–Demultiplexer Realized on Silicon Substrate,” in Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Lamb, Eds. (SETG, Ltd., Glasgow, 1987), pp. 145–147.

Viljanen, J.

Watanabe, R.

Yao, S. K.

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, “Chirp-Grating Lens for Guided-Wave Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635–637 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. W.

Zino, J. D.

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. C. Livanos, A. Katzir, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, “Chirped-Grating Demultiplexers in Dielectric Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 519–521 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Monolithic Integrated Microgratings and Photodiodes for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40120–122 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, “Chirp-Grating Lens for Guided-Wave Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635–637 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. R. Rice, J. D. Zino, D. A. Bryan, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, “Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber-Optic Terminal,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 133–140 (1979).

Other (2)

T. Ito, M. Takami, M. Ito, T. Atsumi, H. Fujima, H. Okuda, M. Kanazawa, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing System Using a Monolithically Integrated Laser Array and an Integrated-Optic Multi/Demultiplexer,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper MH5.

S. Valette, P. Gidon, J. P. Jadot, “New Integrated Optical Multiplexer–Demultiplexer Realized on Silicon Substrate,” in Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Lamb, Eds. (SETG, Ltd., Glasgow, 1987), pp. 145–147.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the proposed integrated optic wavelength demultiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the grating lens and its diffraction. Solid and dashed lines of diffracted waves correspond to wavelengths λ c and λ c + Δλ, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication process of (a) channel waveguides and (b) the coplanar grating lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microphotographs of the fabricated grating lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microphotographs of the fabricated channel waveguides. Input and output channel–slab interfaces are shown in (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of intensity distributions on the output end. Wavelengths of the input beam are (a) 784 nm, (b) 787 nm, and (c) 790 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table I Specifications of the Fabricated IOWD

Equations (5)

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x 2 + ( z + r ) 2 + ( x - f c sin φ c ) 2 + ( z - f c cos φ c ) 2 = m λ c / N e + r + f c ,
d = f c tan φ c λ c Δ λ .
Δ λ r = 2 λ c 2 N e D sin φ c .
η = sin 2 ( κ L / cos φ c ) ,
2 Δ λ b 5 λ c 2 cos φ c 2 π N e L ( 1 - cos φ c ) .

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