Abstract

The design and experimental results of a new 2 × 2 optical routing switch based on liquid crystal is reported. The switch uses nematic liquid crystal for polarization beamsplitting and ferroelectric liquid crystal for polarization rotation. The polarization insensitive, broadcast capable, full duplex switch has a signal-to-crosstalk ratio of ~20 dB, a switching speed below 250 μs and a measured insertion loss of 1.4 dB. We show that the basic 2 × 2 switch can be extended to form a N × N rearrangeable permutation network.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Soref, D. H. McMahon, “Total Switching of Unpolarized Fiber Light with a Four-Port Electro-Optic Liquid-Crystal Device,” Opt. Lett. 5, 147–149 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Skinner, C. H. R. Lane, “A Low-Crosstalk Microoptic Liquid Crystal Switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1178 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Wagner, J. Cheng, “Electrically Controlled Optical Switch for Multimode Fiber Applications,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2921–2925 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Soref, “Low-Crosstalk 2 × 2 Optical Switch,” Opt. Lett. 6, 275–277 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Prisco, “A low-Crosstalk Liquid Crystal Optical Switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. LT-3, 37 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Johnson, M. R. Surette, J. Shamir, “Optical Interconnection Network Using Polarization-Based Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Gates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1727–1732 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. McRuer, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “New Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Beta Switch Design,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988).
  11. Patent held by A. P. Baker, U.S. Patent4,720,171.
  12. J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. J. Smyth, “Nonblocking Photonic Switch Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1052 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Spanke, V. E. Benes, “N-Stage Planar Optical Permutation Network,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1226–1229 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Shamir, H. J. Caulfield, “High-Efficiency Rapidly Programmable Optical Interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1032–1037 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

C. J. Smyth, “Nonblocking Photonic Switch Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1052 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Skinner, C. H. R. Lane, “A Low-Crosstalk Microoptic Liquid Crystal Switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, M. R. Surette, J. Shamir, “Optical Interconnection Network Using Polarization-Based Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Gates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1727–1732 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

J. Shamir, H. J. Caulfield, “High-Efficiency Rapidly Programmable Optical Interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1032–1037 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Spanke, V. E. Benes, “N-Stage Planar Optical Permutation Network,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1226–1229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. J. Prisco, “A low-Crosstalk Liquid Crystal Optical Switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. LT-3, 37 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

1973 (1)

Baker, A. P.

Patent held by A. P. Baker, U.S. Patent4,720,171.

Benes, V. E.

Caulfield, H. J.

Cheng, J.

Clark, N. A.

M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goodby, J. W.

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

R. McRuer, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “New Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Beta Switch Design,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988).

Handschy, M. A.

M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

R. McRuer, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “New Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Beta Switch Design,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988).

Johnson, K. M.

Kashnow, R. A.

Kawachi, M.

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lane, C. H. R.

J. Skinner, C. H. R. Lane, “A Low-Crosstalk Microoptic Liquid Crystal Switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, T. M.

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, D. H.

McRuer, R.

R. McRuer, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “New Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Beta Switch Design,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988).

Meadows, M. R.

M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ouchi, Y.

Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parmar, D. S.

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prisco, J. J.

J. J. Prisco, “A low-Crosstalk Liquid Crystal Optical Switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. LT-3, 37 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, T. P.

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safinya, C. R.

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamir, J.

Sirota, E. B.

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, J.

J. Skinner, C. H. R. Lane, “A Low-Crosstalk Microoptic Liquid Crystal Switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. S.

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smyth, C. J.

C. J. Smyth, “Nonblocking Photonic Switch Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1052 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Spanke, R. A.

Stein, C. R.

Surette, M. R.

Takezoe, H.

Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. E.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. R. Meadows, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Electro-Optic Switching Using Total Internal Reflection by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, “A Reliable Method of Alignment for Smectic Liquid Crystals,” Ferroelectrics 59, 137–000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (2)

C. J. Smyth, “Nonblocking Photonic Switch Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1052 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Skinner, C. H. R. Lane, “A Low-Crosstalk Microoptic Liquid Crystal Switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 6, 1178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Ouchi, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, “Switching Process in Ferroelectic Liquid Crystals; Disclination Dynamics of Surface Stabilized States,” J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

J. J. Prisco, “A low-Crosstalk Liquid Crystal Optical Switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. LT-3, 37 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron (1)

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, M. Kawachi, J. Noda, “2 × 2 Optical Waveguide Matrix Switch Using Nematic Liquid Crystal,” J. Quantum Electron QE-18, 1603–0000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, S. T. Lagerwall, “Ferroelectic Liquid Crystal Electro-Optics Using the Surface Stabilized Structure,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 94, 213 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, “Chevron’ Local Layer Structure in Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Smectic-C Cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. McRuer, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “New Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Beta Switch Design,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988).

Patent held by A. P. Baker, U.S. Patent4,720,171.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout of 2 × 2 optical routing switch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electrical drive signal and optical response of 2 × 2 optical switch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental layout of 8 × 8 optical routing network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Practical realization of 8 × 8 optical routing network.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ c = arcsin ( n o / n g ) ,
= 1 - sin 2 ( 4 θ t ) sin 2 ( π Δ n d / λ ) ,
S C 1 - δ ( n - 1 )

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