Abstract

We demonstrate quantum well tri-state logic devices for possible use in optical bus architectures. These optical devices are analogous to the tri-state devices often used in electronic buses, where each device can be actively on, actively off, or disabled with at most one device on the bus active at a time. We show two methods of generating these tri-state data, one using tri-state quantum well modulators and one using optical tri-state self-electrooptic effect devices, and we demonstrate a simple optical bus consisting of two such devices. Finally, we comment on the limitations on the number of devices that can be connected to a bus of this type.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, e.g., J. W. Goodman “Switching in an Optical Interconnect Environment,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 416–417.
  2. D. A. B. Miller “Optics for Low-Energy Communication Inside Digital Processors: Quantum Detectors, Sources, and Modulators as Efficient Impedance Converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. B. Miller et al., “Novel Hybrid Optically Bistable Switch: The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. B. Miller et al., “The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistabilty and Oscillation, and Self Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-21, 1462–1476 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise “A Free Space Optical Interconnection Scheme,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 132–134.
  8. A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).
  9. L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.
  10. G. D. Boyd et al., “5.5 GHz Multiple Quantum Well Reflection Modulator,” Electron. Lett. 25, 558–560 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. See, e.g., H. S. Hinton, “Architectural Considerations for Photonic Switching Networks,” IEEE Select. Areas Commun. SAC-6, 1209–1226 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (2)

See, e.g., H. S. Hinton, “Architectural Considerations for Photonic Switching Networks,” IEEE Select. Areas Commun. SAC-6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. B. Miller et al., “The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistabilty and Oscillation, and Self Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-21, 1462–1476 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. B. Miller et al., “Novel Hybrid Optically Bistable Switch: The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd et al., “5.5 GHz Multiple Quantum Well Reflection Modulator,” Electron. Lett. 25, 558–560 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

Chemla, D. S.

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

Dickinson, A.

A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise “A Free Space Optical Interconnection Scheme,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 132–134.

Goodman, J. W.

See, e.g., J. W. Goodman “Switching in an Optical Interconnect Environment,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 416–417.

Henry, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., H. S. Hinton, “Architectural Considerations for Photonic Switching Networks,” IEEE Select. Areas Commun. SAC-6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller “Optics for Low-Energy Communication Inside Digital Processors: Quantum Detectors, Sources, and Modulators as Efficient Impedance Converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller et al., “The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistabilty and Oscillation, and Self Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-21, 1462–1476 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller et al., “Novel Hybrid Optically Bistable Switch: The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

Prise, M. E.

A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise “A Free Space Optical Interconnection Scheme,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 132–134.

Tu, C. W.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

Weiner, J. S.

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988); “Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optical Set-Reset Latch, Differetnial Logic Gate, and Differential Modulator/Detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller et al., “Novel Hybrid Optically Bistable Switch: The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. D. Boyd et al., “5.5 GHz Multiple Quantum Well Reflection Modulator,” Electron. Lett. 25, 558–560 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Weiner, D. S. Chemla, “Electric Field Dependence of Linear Optical Properties in Quantum Well Structures: Waveguide Electro-Absorption and Sum Rules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1816–1830 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller et al., “The Quantum Well Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistabilty and Oscillation, and Self Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-21, 1462–1476 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Select. Areas Commun. (1)

See, e.g., H. S. Hinton, “Architectural Considerations for Photonic Switching Networks,” IEEE Select. Areas Commun. SAC-6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

See, e.g., J. W. Goodman “Switching in an Optical Interconnect Environment,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 416–417.

A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise “A Free Space Optical Interconnection Scheme,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 132–134.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Multistate Self-Electrooptic Effect Devices,” OSA Annual Meeting, 1988Technical Digest Series, Vol. 11 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1988), paper FBB1; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 1921–1927 (1989).

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch Fabricated Symmetric SEEDs,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1989), pp. 75–77.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tri-state optical devices: (a) tri-state SEED for use in all-optical systems; (b) tri-state quantum well modulator. (Vmod should be set to zero when disabled.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the optical bus. Arrows show the interconnections between devices and are not actual ray traces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results from the optical bus experiment. Top and middle traces are the Q outputs of the first and second tri-state modulators (S inputs to the tri-state SEED). Bottom trace is the Q output from the tri-state SEED. (a) The first modulator is active, and the second modulator is disabled. (b) The second modulator is active, and the first modulator is disabled. (c) The enable input power on the tri-state SEED is low. (Time-sequential operation is responsible for the time shift between the outputs of the modulators and the tri-state SEED.)

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