Abstract

Thionine dye dissolved in polyvinylalcohol matrix is a well-known photoreducible system that shows photochromism. Experiments on a real time hologram recording process performed by this system are presented here. During the reading process, a grating reinforcement was observed, and this phenomenon is qualitatively discussed.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandros, “Organic Photochemical Refractive-Index Recording Systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).
  3. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Gelatin as a Photosensitive Medium for Conventional and Polarizing Holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989–1997 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Borell, Photochemistry: A Primer (Edward Arnold, London, 1973).
  5. H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kamogawa, H. Hasegawa, “Redox Sensitization in the Photochromic Polymers of the Thionines Series,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 745–752 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Drexhage, “What’s Ahead in Laser Dyes,” Laser Focus 9, 35–39 (1973).
  10. K. H. Drexhage, “Design of Laser Dyes,” in Technical Digest, Seventh International Quantum Electronic Conference, Montreal (1972), p. 526.
  11. J. Marx, K. Schiller, “Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten kationischer Farbstoffer in festen Polyvinylalkohol- schichten,” Z. Chem. 18, 223–224 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  13. D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, “Coupled-Wave Analysis of Holographic Storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volumes Holograms,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1974).
  15. J. J. Amodei, D. A. Staebler, “Holographic Pattern Fixing in Electro-Optic Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, “Technique for Measuring Refractive Index Changes in Photochromic Materials,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1100–1104 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. C. Newell, L. Solymar, A. A. Ward, “Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin: Real-Time Effects,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4460–4466 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. A. Shankoff, “Recording Holograms in Luminescent Materials,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2282–2284 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Fujiwara, K. Nakagawa, “Phase Conjugation in Fluorescein Film by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing and Holographic Process,” Opt. Commun. 55, 386–390 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

H. Fujiwara, K. Nakagawa, “Phase Conjugation in Fluorescein Film by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing and Holographic Process,” Opt. Commun. 55, 386–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Newell, L. Solymar, A. A. Ward, “Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin: Real-Time Effects,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4460–4466 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandros, “Organic Photochemical Refractive-Index Recording Systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. Marx, K. Schiller, “Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten kationischer Farbstoffer in festen Polyvinylalkohol- schichten,” Z. Chem. 18, 223–224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (2)

H. Kamogawa, H. Hasegawa, “Redox Sensitization in the Photochromic Polymers of the Thionines Series,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 745–752 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Drexhage, “What’s Ahead in Laser Dyes,” Laser Focus 9, 35–39 (1973).

1972 (1)

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, “Coupled-Wave Analysis of Holographic Storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. J. Amodei, D. A. Staebler, “Holographic Pattern Fixing in Electro-Optic Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

T. A. Shankoff, “Recording Holograms in Luminescent Materials,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2282–2284 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1968 (1)

H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Amodei, J. J.

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, “Coupled-Wave Analysis of Holographic Storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei, D. A. Staebler, “Holographic Pattern Fixing in Electro-Optic Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

Borell, P.

P. Borell, Photochemistry: A Primer (Edward Arnold, London, 1973).

Chandros, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandros, “Organic Photochemical Refractive-Index Recording Systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. A.

C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).

Dragostinova, V.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, “What’s Ahead in Laser Dyes,” Laser Focus 9, 35–39 (1973).

K. H. Drexhage, “Design of Laser Dyes,” in Technical Digest, Seventh International Quantum Electronic Conference, Montreal (1972), p. 526.

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, K. Nakagawa, “Phase Conjugation in Fluorescein Film by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing and Holographic Process,” Opt. Commun. 55, 386–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

H. Kamogawa, H. Hasegawa, “Redox Sensitization in the Photochromic Polymers of the Thionines Series,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 745–752 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kamogawa, H.

H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Kamogawa, H. Hasegawa, “Redox Sensitization in the Photochromic Polymers of the Thionines Series,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 745–752 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Katsuta, S.

H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Lessard, R. A.

Marx, J.

J. Marx, K. Schiller, “Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten kationischer Farbstoffer in festen Polyvinylalkohol- schichten,” Z. Chem. 18, 223–224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, H.

K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

H. Fujiwara, K. Nakagawa, “Phase Conjugation in Fluorescein Film by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing and Holographic Process,” Opt. Commun. 55, 386–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nanasawa, M.

H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Newell, J. C.

Nikolova, L.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perry, P. J.

C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).

Roberge, P. C.

Schiller, K.

J. Marx, K. Schiller, “Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten kationischer Farbstoffer in festen Polyvinylalkohol- schichten,” Z. Chem. 18, 223–224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schwerzel, R. E.

C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).

Shankoff, T. A.

Shigehara, K.

K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Solano, C.

Solymar, L.

Staebler, D. A.

J. J. Amodei, D. A. Staebler, “Holographic Pattern Fixing in Electro-Optic Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, “Coupled-Wave Analysis of Holographic Storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, H.

H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandros, “Organic Photochemical Refractive-Index Recording Systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, “Technique for Measuring Refractive Index Changes in Photochromic Materials,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1100–1104 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomova, N.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, E.

K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Verber, C. M.

C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).

Ward, A. A.

Zech, R. G.

R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volumes Holograms,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1974).

Adv. Photochem. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandros, “Organic Photochemical Refractive-Index Recording Systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Amodei, D. A. Staebler, “Holographic Pattern Fixing in Electro-Optic Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced Anisotropy in Rigid Dye Solutions for Transient Polarization Holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262–1267 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, “Coupled-Wave Analysis of Holographic Storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2)

H. Kamogawa, S. Katsuta, M. Nanasawa, “Organic Solid Photochromism by Photoreduction Mechanism: Thionine-Reductant System,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 1621–1628 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Kamogawa, H. Hasegawa, “Redox Sensitization in the Photochromic Polymers of the Thionines Series,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 745–752 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 (1)

H. Kamogawa, M. Kato, H. Sugiyama, “Syntheses and Properties of Photochromic Polymers of the Azobenzene and Thiazine series,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A-1 6, 2967–2991 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. (1)

K. Shigehara, H. Matsunaga, E. Tsuchida, “Synthesis and Properties of Polymeric Azine and Thiazine Dyes,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 1853–1863 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “What’s Ahead in Laser Dyes,” Laser Focus 9, 35–39 (1973).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Fujiwara, K. Nakagawa, “Phase Conjugation in Fluorescein Film by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing and Holographic Process,” Opt. Commun. 55, 386–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chem. (1)

J. Marx, K. Schiller, “Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten kationischer Farbstoffer in festen Polyvinylalkohol- schichten,” Z. Chem. 18, 223–224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volumes Holograms,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1974).

K. H. Drexhage, “Design of Laser Dyes,” in Technical Digest, Seventh International Quantum Electronic Conference, Montreal (1972), p. 526.

P. Borell, Photochemistry: A Primer (Edward Arnold, London, 1973).

C. M. Verber, R. E. Schwerzel, P. J. Perry, R. A. Craig, Holographic Recording Materials Development,” NASA Contract. Rep. 144991 (1976).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for real time holographic experiments: (A) photodiodes; (B) electromechanical shutters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording kinetics in different thionine/PVA films (A, optical density of films).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical real time recording and reinforcement of a hologram (−1 order).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photostationary β and reinforced α diffraction efficiency vs absorbance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recording and reading with a 4-Hz chopped object beam for long exposure time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recording and reading with a 0.25-Hz chopped object beam during the first minute.

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