Abstract

Luminance, chromatic, and color visual threshold contrast data are found along the heated object scale at two mean luminance levels using a high resolution graphics monitor. Data from ideal stimulus characteristics (no or little noise and sharp contrast edges) and test stimulus sizes of 1.00°, 0.50°, and 0.25° were obtained along with data for linearly stepwise blurred contrast edge stimuli in a noise pattern with test stimulus sizes of 0.50° and 0.25°. All data were collected using an adaptive staircase with a spatial two alternative forced choice paradigm. The results suggest that uniform CRT display scales that have been perceptually optimized for ideal viewing conditions will remain uniform even though the contrast step sizes of the display scale will no longer be perceptually optimized in nonideal viewing conditions.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Schuchard, “Review of Colorimetric Methods for Developing and Evaluating Uniform CRT Display Scales,” Opt. Eng. submitted (1988).
  4. P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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1987 (1)

P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. P. J. deValk, W. J. M. Epping, A. Heringa, “Colour Representation of Biomedical Data,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 23, 343–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

W. B. Cowan, “An Inexpensive Scheme for Calibration of a Colour Monitor in Terms of CIE Standard Coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of Chromatic Adaptation on Color Discrimination and Color Appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Pizer, F. H. Chan, “Evaluation of the Number of Discernible Levels Produced by a Display,” Inserm 88, 561–580 (1979).

1974 (1)

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

G. B. Wetherill, H. Levitt, “Sequential Estimation of Points on a Psychometric Function,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

1951 (1)

1936 (1)

J. Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1934 (1)

W. D. Wright, F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue Discrimination in Normal Colour-Vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Benes, S. C.

P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Berger, T.

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of Chromatic Adaptation on Color Discrimination and Color Appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, W. R. J.

Chan, F. H.

S. M. Pizer, F. H. Chan, “Evaluation of the Number of Discernible Levels Produced by a Display,” Inserm 88, 561–580 (1979).

Cowan, W. B.

W. B. Cowan, “An Inexpensive Scheme for Calibration of a Colour Monitor in Terms of CIE Standard Coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

deValk, J. P. J.

J. P. J. deValk, W. J. M. Epping, A. Heringa, “Colour Representation of Biomedical Data,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 23, 343–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Epping, W. J. M.

J. P. J. deValk, W. J. M. Epping, A. Heringa, “Colour Representation of Biomedical Data,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 23, 343–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heringa, A.

J. P. J. deValk, W. J. M. Epping, A. Heringa, “Colour Representation of Biomedical Data,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 23, 343–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heuts, M. G. H.

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, J. J.

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and Detection of Changes in Luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levitt, H.

G. B. Wetherill, H. Levitt, “Sequential Estimation of Points on a Psychometric Function,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loomis, J. M.

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of Chromatic Adaptation on Color Discrimination and Color Appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagaraja, N. S.

Noorlander, C.

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright, F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue Discrimination in Normal Colour-Vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, I. T.

Pizer, S. M.

S. M. Pizer, F. H. Chan, “Evaluation of the Number of Discernible Levels Produced by a Display,” Inserm 88, 561–580 (1979).

Pointer, M. R.

Pollehn, H.

Roehrig, H.

Schuchard, R. A.

R. A. Schuchard, “Review of Colorimetric Methods for Developing and Evaluating Uniform CRT Display Scales,” Opt. Eng. submitted (1988).

Sproson, W. N.

W. N. Sproson, Color Science in Television and Display Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1983).

Steinhardt, J.

J. Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vingrys, A. J.

P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wetherill, G. B.

G. B. Wetherill, H. Levitt, “Sequential Estimation of Points on a Psychometric Function,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winter, L. M.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue Discrimination in Normal Colour-Vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. (1)

G. B. Wetherill, H. Levitt, “Sequential Estimation of Points on a Psychometric Function,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

P. E. King-Smith, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, “Visual Thresholds Measured with Color Video Monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 73–80 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graphics (1)

W. B. Cowan, “An Inexpensive Scheme for Calibration of a Colour Monitor in Terms of CIE Standard Coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315–321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inserm (1)

S. M. Pizer, F. H. Chan, “Evaluation of the Number of Discernible Levels Produced by a Display,” Inserm 88, 561–580 (1979).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

J. Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. P. J. deValk, W. J. M. Epping, A. Heringa, “Colour Representation of Biomedical Data,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 23, 343–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

W. D. Wright, F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue Discrimination in Normal Colour-Vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and Detection of Changes in Luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Loomis, T. Berger, “Effects of Chromatic Adaptation on Color Discrimination and Color Appearance,” Vision Res. 19, 891–901 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. A. Schuchard, “Review of Colorimetric Methods for Developing and Evaluating Uniform CRT Display Scales,” Opt. Eng. submitted (1988).

W. N. Sproson, Color Science in Television and Display Systems (Hilger, Bristol, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of the CRT screen as seen by an observer during a data taking session (a). Contrast profile (luminance, chromaticity, or color) of the linearly stepwise blurred 0.25° test stimulus for an incremental condition (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scaled luminance JNDs in (cd/m2)1/3 for (a) observer RS and (b) observer CP. Data for 1.0° (triangles), 0.5° (circles), and 0.25° (squares) test fields are shown. For clarity of presentation, sharp/uniform contrast data (open symbols) and blur/noise contrast data (solid symbols) are offset from the measured value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromaticity JNDs in u′,v′ units for (a) observer RS and (b) observer CP. Data for 1.0° (triangles), 0.5° (circles), and 0.25° (squares) test fields are shown. For clarity of presentation, sharp/uniform contrast data (open symbols) and blur/noise contrast data (solid symbols) are offset from the measured value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scaled luminance JNDs in (cd/m2)1/3 at two luminances for (a) observer RS and (b) observer CP. Data for 1° (triangles), 0.5° (circles), and 0.25° (squares) fields are shown. For clarity of presentation, sharp/uniform contrast data (open symbols) and blur/noise contrast data (filled symbols) are offset from the measured value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromaticity JNDs in u′,v′ units at two luminances for (a) observer RS and (b) observer CP. Data for 1° (triangles), 0.5° (circles), and 0.25° (squares) test fields are shown. Sharp/uniform contrast data (open symbols) and blur/noise contrast data (solid symbols) are offset from the measured value.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scaled luminance JNDs in (cd/m2)1/3 (a) and chromaticity JNDs in u′,v′ units with two color temperature backgrounds for observer RS (b). Data for 0.5° (circles) and 0.25° (squares) test fields are shown. Sharp/uniform contrast data (open symbols) and blur/noise contrast data (solid symbols) are offset from the measured value.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Interobserver JND Values

Tables Icon

Table II Mean JNDs and Standard Errors of the Mean for Interobserver Data and Data From Observers RS and CP

Equations (1)

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JND = [ ( Δ Y 1 / 3 ) 2 + ( 3.83659 × Δ u v ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

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