Abstract

The opacity of the sky above the South Pole was measured in the millimetric atmospheric windows. We found the opacity to range from 0.1 to 0.2 implying very low water vapor column density. The low water vapor content makes the South Pole ideal for astrophysical observations in the infrared and millimetric windows.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Dragovan, S. H. Mosely, “Gold Absorbing Film for a Composite Bolometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 654–656 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. E. Whitcomb, J. Keene, “Low-Pass Interference Filters for Submillimeter Astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 19, 197–198 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. C. Zammit, P. A. R. Ade, “Zenith Atomopspheric Attenuation Measurements at Millimetre and SubMillimetre Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 293, 550–552 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. D. Smyth, B. V. Jackson, “Atmospheric Water Vapor at the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2041–2042 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Pajot et al., in Proceedings Space-Borne SubMillemtre Astronomy Mission, Segovia, Spain, 4–6 June 1986, p. 189.
  7. M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).
  8. G. Dall’Oglio, P. De Bernardis, “Observations of Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy from Antarctica,” Astrophys. J. 331, 547–553 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1988

G. Dall’Oglio, P. De Bernardis, “Observations of Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy from Antarctica,” Astrophys. J. 331, 547–553 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

M. Dragovan, S. H. Mosely, “Gold Absorbing Film for a Composite Bolometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 654–656 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

C. C. Zammit, P. A. R. Ade, “Zenith Atomopspheric Attenuation Measurements at Millimetre and SubMillimetre Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 293, 550–552 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1977

1973

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

C. C. Zammit, P. A. R. Ade, “Zenith Atomopspheric Attenuation Measurements at Millimetre and SubMillimetre Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 293, 550–552 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Oglio, G.

G. Dall’Oglio, P. De Bernardis, “Observations of Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy from Antarctica,” Astrophys. J. 331, 547–553 (1988).
[CrossRef]

De Bernardis, P.

G. Dall’Oglio, P. De Bernardis, “Observations of Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy from Antarctica,” Astrophys. J. 331, 547–553 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dragovan, M.

Gispert, R.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

Jackson, B. V.

Keene, J.

Lamarre, J. M.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

Mosely, S. H.

Pajot, F.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

F. Pajot et al., in Proceedings Space-Borne SubMillemtre Astronomy Mission, Segovia, Spain, 4–6 June 1986, p. 189.

Penzias, A. A.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pomerantz, M. A.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

Puget, J. L.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

Smyth, W. D.

Whitcomb, S. E.

Zammit, C. C.

C. C. Zammit, P. A. R. Ade, “Zenith Atomopspheric Attenuation Measurements at Millimetre and SubMillimetre Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 293, 550–552 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Antarctic J. of the U.S.

M. A. Pomerantz, F. Pajot, R. Gispert, J. M. Lamarre, J. L. Puget, “Submillimeter Observation of the Integrated Galactic Emission from the South Pole,” Antarctic J. of the U.S. 19, 223 (1984).

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

G. Dall’Oglio, P. De Bernardis, “Observations of Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy from Antarctica,” Astrophys. J. 331, 547–553 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

C. C. Zammit, P. A. R. Ade, “Zenith Atomopspheric Attenuation Measurements at Millimetre and SubMillimetre Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 293, 550–552 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Pajot et al., in Proceedings Space-Borne SubMillemtre Astronomy Mission, Segovia, Spain, 4–6 June 1986, p. 189.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the configuration of the apperatus. M0 is a flat mirror which deflects the beam through the optics train formed by M1, the chopper, M2, and M3. M1 reimages the focal plane onto the chopper. The chopper alternately switches the beam between the 77-K load and the sky. M2 matches the beam from the sky or the load into the detector. M3 matches the beam into the 77-K load. The chopper control synchronizes data acquisition circuitry, the integrators, and computer, with the position of the chopper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of the bolometer system as a function of wavenumber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the skydip data (solid circles) and fitted skydip curves (thin line) for the data in Table I.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I South Pole Skydip Data (580–830-μm Bandwidth)

Tables Icon

Table II Submilllmeter Opacity and Surface Weather Data

Equations (4)

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s = g { η [ 1 - exp ( τ z a ) ] B ( T atm ) + η exp ( τ z a ) B ( T cbr ) + ( 1 - η ) B ( T ground - B ( T load ) } ,
B ( T ) ν 0 ν 1 h ν 3 k ( exp ( h ν k T ) - 1 ) - 1 R ( ν ) d ν
χ 2 i [ s i - s ( g , τ z , T atm , a i ) ] 2 σ i 2 ,
T sky + T spill s g η + 1 η B ( T load ) = [ 1 - exp ( τ z a ) ] B ( T atm ) + exp ( - τ z a ) B ( T cbr ) + ( 1 - η ) η B ( T ground ) .

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