Abstract

Measurement of lasing from dye doped micron sized ethanol droplets irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser shows evidence of lifetime broadening and relaxation oscillations. Observations of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and lasing generated by the same laser pulse in a dye doped ethanol droplet and coupled to the same morphology dependent resonance exhibit longer delays in the initiation of SRS than for pure ethanol droplets where lasing is absent. SRS emission above the plasma breakdown threshold is not measurably delayed and is quenched by the developing plasma.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. G. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser Emission from Individual Droplets at Wavelengths Corresponding to Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. J. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some Characteristics of a Droplet Whispering-Gallery-Mode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 214–216 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman Scattering from Individual Water and Ethanol Droplets at Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-Order Stokes Emission from Micrometer-Sized Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Photon Lifetime Within a Droplet: Temporal Determination of Elastic and Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. G. Pinnick et al., “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Micrometer-Sized Droplets: Time-Resolved Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 13, 494–496 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W.-F. Hsieh, J.-B. Zheng, R. K. Chang, “Time Dependence of Multiorder Stimulated Raman Scattering from Single Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 13, 497–499 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. G. Pinnick, A. Biswas, R. L. Armstrong, H. Latifi, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, G. Fernandez, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Micrometer-Sized Droplets: Measurements of Angular Scattering Characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1099–1101 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Latifi, “Experimental Studies of Effects Produced by the Irradiation of Micron-Sized Droplets with High Intensity Laser Beams,” Dissertation, New Mexico State U. (1989).
  15. W.-F. Hsieh, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “High Intensity Laser Interaction with Micrometer Size Dye Droplet,” Acad. Sin. 16, 1–8 (1986).
  16. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986), p. 1004.
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), p. 147.
  18. P. Chylek, A. Biswas, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, “Time Delay of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Micron-Size Droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642–1644 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Biswas, H. Latifi, L. J. Radziemski, R. L. Armstrong, “Irradiance and Laser Wavelength Dependence of Plasma Spectra from Single Levitated Aerosol Droplets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2386–2391 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

1986

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-Order Stokes Emission from Micrometer-Sized Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-Dependent Resonances Associated with Stimulated Processes in Microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1509–1518 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W.-F. Hsieh, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “High Intensity Laser Interaction with Micrometer Size Dye Droplet,” Acad. Sin. 16, 1–8 (1986).

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. J. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some Characteristics of a Droplet Whispering-Gallery-Mode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1984

1978

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical Levitation and Partial Wave Resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

Barber, P. W.

Benner, R. E.

Biswas, A.

Campillo, A. J.

Chang, R. K.

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, A. Biswas, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, “Time Delay of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Micron-Size Droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642–1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, J. D. Pendleton, R. G. Pinnick, “Internal and Near-Surface Scattered Field of a Spherical Particle at Resonant Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3940–3942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical Levitation and Partial Wave Resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, P. R.

Creegan, E.

Fernandez, G.

Hill, S. C.

Hsieh, W.-F.

W.-F. Hsieh, J.-B. Zheng, R. K. Chang, “Time Dependence of Multiorder Stimulated Raman Scattering from Single Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 13, 497–499 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-F. Hsieh, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “High Intensity Laser Interaction with Micrometer Size Dye Droplet,” Acad. Sin. 16, 1–8 (1986).

Huston, A. L.

Jarzembski, M. A.

P. Chylek, A. Biswas, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, “Time Delay of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Micron-Size Droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642–1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Justus, B. J.

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical Levitation and Partial Wave Resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical Levitation and Partial Wave Resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Leach, D. H.

Lin, H.-B.

Long, M. G.

Pendleton, J. D.

Pinnick, R. G.

Qian, S.-X.

Radziemski, L. J.

Rushforth, C. K.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986), p. 1004.

Snow, J. B.

Srivastava, V.

R. G. Pinnick, A. Biswas, R. L. Armstrong, H. Latifi, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, G. Fernandez, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Micrometer-Sized Droplets: Measurements of Angular Scattering Characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1099–1101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, A. Biswas, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, “Time Delay of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Micron-Size Droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642–1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

W.-F. Hsieh, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “High Intensity Laser Interaction with Micrometer Size Dye Droplet,” Acad. Sin. 16, 1–8 (1986).

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. G. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser Emission from Individual Droplets at Wavelengths Corresponding to Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, K. F.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), p. 147.

Zhang, J.-Z.

Zheng, J.-B.

Acad. Sin.

W.-F. Hsieh, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “High Intensity Laser Interaction with Micrometer Size Dye Droplet,” Acad. Sin. 16, 1–8 (1986).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Chylek, A. Biswas, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, “Time Delay of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Micron-Size Droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642–1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. G. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser Emission from Individual Droplets at Wavelengths Corresponding to Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. J. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some Characteristics of a Droplet Whispering-Gallery-Mode Laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Laser Emission from Dye-Doped Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 214–216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman Scattering from Individual Water and Ethanol Droplets at Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Photon Lifetime Within a Droplet: Temporal Determination of Elastic and Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick et al., “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Micrometer-Sized Droplets: Time-Resolved Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 13, 494–496 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-F. Hsieh, J.-B. Zheng, R. K. Chang, “Time Dependence of Multiorder Stimulated Raman Scattering from Single Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 13, 497–499 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, A. Biswas, R. L. Armstrong, H. Latifi, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, G. Fernandez, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Micrometer-Sized Droplets: Measurements of Angular Scattering Characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1099–1101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical Levitation and Partial Wave Resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-Order Stokes Emission from Micrometer-Sized Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Latifi, “Experimental Studies of Effects Produced by the Irradiation of Micron-Sized Droplets with High Intensity Laser Beams,” Dissertation, New Mexico State U. (1989).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986), p. 1004.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), p. 147.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Variation in unloaded Q for MDRs of mode order 3, 4, and 5 vs size parameter for a spherical water droplet with refractive index m = 1.33 − 0i. (b) Mie calculation of scattering efficiency QSCA showing damping of high Q MDRs with increasing imaginary index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental arrangement used for measuring lasing spectra and temporal behavior of lasing and SRS from droplets. Acronyms used are PDA, photodiode array; BS, beam splitter, PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical lasing spectra for a nominal 12-μm radius ethanol droplet doped with (3 × 10−4-M) rhodamine 6G. Also shown is fluorescence emission and absorption for bulk liquid. Lasing occurs intermittently in region A. In region B a sequence of quasiperiodic lasing peaks is reliably observed. Note SRS emission at 630 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral width vs irradiance for dye doped ethanol droplets in spectral region B where reliable lasing occurs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Irradiance dependence of rise time and FWHM in 11-μm radius, 3 × 10−4-M dye doped ethanol droplets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral dependence of lasing rise time and initiation time in 10-μm radius, 3 × 10−4-M dye doped ethanol droplets. The bulk emission curve is also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PMT signal vs time for 10-μm radius dye doped ethanol droplets irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Both elastic scattering and lasing signals are shown. Multiple peaks observed in the lasing signal suggest relaxation oscillations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal behavior of lasing and SRS emission: (a) observations of elastic scattering in pure ethanol droplets; (b) near simultaneous lasing and SRS in dye doped ethanol droplets; (c) SRS in pure ethanol droplets. Additional time delay of SRS emission in the presence of lasing is observed in (c), compared with SRS from pure ethanol droplets68 in (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Observation of elastic scattering and SRS in 30-μm radius water droplets at laser intensities below and above breakdown threshold. Above breakdown, SRS is not delayed and is quenched by developing plasma.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Irradiance dependence SRS rise time and temporal width (FWHM) for 10-μm radius CCl4 droplets. Droplet breakdown occurs at 2 GW cm−2; air breakdown occurs at 100 GW cm−2.

Equations (2)

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T m = 1 2 π t t c ( r - 1 ) ,
t c = Q c 2 π ν c .

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