Abstract

A theoretical model is developed which allows for well-defined lenses to be formed with different dioptric properties using lasers that are known to ablate a variety of materials. With the theoretical development as a guide an experimental arrangement is defined for the ArF excimer laser and this arrangement is used to form lenses with highly smooth surfaces in three polymeric materials (polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polyvinyl chloride) to test the validity of the theory. As part of the procedure to obtain these lenses, ablation curves (etch depth per pulse vs log of the laser fluence) were measured for each of these polymers and these curves are also reported. The experiments were extended to the rabbit cornea in which the corneal button was reshaped as part of keratomileusis surgery. This preliminary experiment resulted in a clear cornea with a smooth corneal surface and a measured change of 3 diopters in the treated eye.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Srinivasan, V. Mayne-Banton, “Self-Developing Photoetching of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films by Far-Ultraviolet Excimer Laser Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576–578 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Srinivasan, W. J. Leigh, “Ablative Photodecomposition: Action of Far-Ultraviolet (193 nm) Laser Radiation on Poly-(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Gies, “Self-Developing UV Photoresist Using Excimer Laser Exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Ultraviolet Laser Ablation of Organic Polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1303–1316 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).
  8. J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).
  10. S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  11. E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  12. M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  13. K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. F. Deutsch, “Medical Applications of Lasers,” Phys. Today 41, 56–63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Vaughan, T. Asbury, General Ophthalmology (Lange, San Mateo, CA, 1986), pp. 125–126.

1989

R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Ultraviolet Laser Ablation of Organic Polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1303–1316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
[PubMed]

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. F. Deutsch, “Medical Applications of Lasers,” Phys. Today 41, 56–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

1986

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

1983

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
[PubMed]

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Gies, “Self-Developing UV Photoresist Using Excimer Laser Exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. Srinivasan, V. Mayne-Banton, “Self-Developing Photoetching of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films by Far-Ultraviolet Excimer Laser Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576–578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan, W. J. Leigh, “Ablative Photodecomposition: Action of Far-Ultraviolet (193 nm) Laser Radiation on Poly-(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adler, C. M.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

Andrew, J. E.

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Asbury, T.

D. Vaughan, T. Asbury, General Ophthalmology (Lange, San Mateo, CA, 1986), pp. 125–126.

Asfar, L.

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beuerman, R.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Braren, B.

R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Ultraviolet Laser Ablation of Organic Polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1303–1316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
[PubMed]

Chastang, J. C.

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotter, J.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dardenne, M. U.

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

Dehm, E. J.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

Deutsch, T. F.

T. F. Deutsch, “Medical Applications of Lasers,” Phys. Today 41, 56–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Gies, “Self-Developing UV Photoresist Using Excimer Laser Exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Falzoni, W.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Forster, D.

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gabay, S.

S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
[PubMed]

Gies, M. W.

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Gies, “Self-Developing UV Photoresist Using Excimer Laser Exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, K. D.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenkamp, F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

Jares, T.

S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
[PubMed]

Kaufman, H. E.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Key, P. H.

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, R. R.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Esperance, F. A.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, W. J.

R. Srinivasan, W. J. Leigh, “Ablative Photodecomposition: Action of Far-Ultraviolet (193 nm) Laser Radiation on Poly-(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Manasche, M.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

Martin, C. A.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mayne-Banton, V.

R. Srinivasan, V. Mayne-Banton, “Self-Developing Photoetching of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films by Far-Ultraviolet Excimer Laser Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576–578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, M. B.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Morton, K.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neuhann, T.

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

Pouliquen, Y.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

Renard, G.

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, L.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Rothery, S.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

Savaldell, M.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, E.

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

Schubert, H.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

Slomovic, A.

S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Ultraviolet Laser Ablation of Organic Polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1303–1316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
[PubMed]

R. Srinivasan, W. J. Leigh, “Ablative Photodecomposition: Action of Far-Ultraviolet (193 nm) Laser Radiation on Poly-(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan, V. Mayne-Banton, “Self-Developing Photoetching of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films by Far-Ultraviolet Excimer Laser Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576–578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, R. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

Telfair, W. B.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tenner, A.

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

Trokel, S. L.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
[PubMed]

Vaughan, D.

D. Vaughan, T. Asbury, General Ophthalmology (Lange, San Mateo, CA, 1986), pp. 125–126.

Waring, G. O.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warner, J. W.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. R.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer Laser Surgery of the Cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715 (1983).
[PubMed]

S. Gabay, A. Slomovic, T. Jares, “Excimer Laser-Processed Donor Corneal Lenticules for Lamellar Keratoplasty,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 47–51 (1989).
[PubMed]

E. Schroder, M. U. Dardenne, T. Neuhann, A. Tenner, “An Ophthalmic Excimer Laser for Corneal Surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 472–473 (1987).
[PubMed]

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive Surgery with Excimer Laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469–471 (1987).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Srinivasan, V. Mayne-Banton, “Self-Developing Photoetching of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films by Far-Ultraviolet Excimer Laser Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576–578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Andrew, P. E. Dyer, D. Forster, P. H. Key, “Direct Etching of Polymeric Materials Using a XeCl Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 717–719 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Arch Ophthalmol.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer Laser Instrumentation and Technique for Human Corneal Surgery,” Arch Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

K. D. Hanna, J. C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer Laser Keratectomy for Myopia with a Rotating-Slit Delivery System,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Opthalmol.

K. D. Hanna, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, M. Savaldell, J. Cotter, K. Morton, M. Manasche, “Corneal Stromal Wound Healing in Rabbits After 193 nm Excimer Laser Surface Ablation,” Arch. Opthalmol. 107, 895–901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Comparative Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by Diamond and Steel Knives and Two Ultraviolet Radiations from an Excimer Laser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 482–501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Ultraviolet Laser Ablation of Organic Polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1303–1316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

R. Srinivasan, W. J. Leigh, “Ablative Photodecomposition: Action of Far-Ultraviolet (193 nm) Laser Radiation on Poly-(Ethylene Terephthalate) Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Gies, “Self-Developing UV Photoresist Using Excimer Laser Exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer Laser Ablation of the Cornea and Lens: Experimental Studies,” Ophthalmol. 92, 741–748 (1985).

J. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. Schubert, “An Ultrastructural Study of Corneal Incisions Induced by an Excimer Laser at 193 nm,” Ophthalmol. 92, 749–758 (1985).

Phys. Today

T. F. Deutsch, “Medical Applications of Lasers,” Phys. Today 41, 56–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Vaughan, T. Asbury, General Ophthalmology (Lange, San Mateo, CA, 1986), pp. 125–126.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the ophthalmological procedure known as keratomileusis where a corneal button is cut and reshaped in the stromal side and subsequently reattached to the cornea.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphic representation of the ablation curve for a hypothetical material where the depth of ablation is linearly dependent on the log of the intensity of the incident laser light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parabolic pattern that is impressed on a material with an index of refraction n, with R being the radius of curvature that develops as a result of the impressed parabola.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement of lenses that allowed the formation of a Gaussian beam on the surface of the substrate. In this arrangement the two cylindrical lenses form a square beam of 22 × 22 mm with the spherical lens used to illuminate the substrate which is rotated by the motor shown in the figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ablation curve for polymethyl methacrylate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ablation curve for polycarbonate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ablation curve for polyvinyl chloride.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power of the lenses formed in polymethyl methacrylate and polycarbonate as a function of the number of laser pulses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power of the lenses formed in polyvinyl chloride and polycarbonate as a function of the number of laser pulses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Representative lens formed in polycarbonate with 500 pulses. The dioptric power of this lens is −11.5 ± 0.8D. The letters eci in the center of the lens are smaller in size than the surrounding letters which are under the flat plate of polycarbonate in which the lens is not impressed.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ablation curve for the rabbit cornea.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lens impressed on the rabbit cornea with 400 pulses. Note the smooth surface of the cornea without the steps that are typically present when alternative ablation procedures with slits are used.

Tables (1)

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Table I Constant Slope Regions of the Ablation Curves for PMMA, Polycarbonate, and PVC

Equations (11)

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I = A exp ( - r 2 / 2 σ 2 ) ,
Z = p / α ln I / I t .
Z = - ( 1 / 2 R ) r 2 + B ,
R = α σ 2 / p ,
B = p / α ln A / I t .
D = 1 / f = ( 1 - n ) / R .
D = [ ( 1 - n ) / ( α σ 2 ) ] p .
D = - ( 1 / δ ) p ,
δ = - α σ 2 / ( 1 - n ) = constant .
σ 2 = - δ 1 ( 1 - n 1 ) / α 1 = - δ 2 ( 1 - n 2 ) / α 2 ,
[ ( 1 - n 1 ) tan θ 1 ] / [ ( 1 - n 2 ) tan θ 2 ] = δ 2 / δ 1 ,

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