Abstract

An investigation of the stability of the diffraction efficiency of dichromated gelatin (DCG) holograms has been carried out paying specific attention to coated and baked holograms that are subsequently exposed to high humidity (RH > 60%) environment. The investigation has revealed that (a) the environmental stability of DCG holograms can be considerably improved either by coating or baking; (b) the DCG holograms can be used at temperatures well-above room temperature (for example, as high as 175°C) without showing undue detrimental effects regarding their efficiency; and (c) the diffraction efficiency of uncoated and baked holograms can be restored by reprocessing whereas such a thing becomes impossible in coated holograms.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101–2105 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.
  3. B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
  4. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Study on the pH Dependence of Diffraction Efficiency of Phase Holograms in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 25, 798–801 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of External Electron Donor in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: an Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324–330 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Towards Optimum Diffraction Efficiency for Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 259–263 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: a Study of Their Storage Life and Reprocessibility,” Appl. Opt. 28, 340–344 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Technical Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (Jan.1973).
  9. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).
  10. T. P. Ong, R. P. Chang, “Low-Temperature Deposition of Diamond Films for Optical Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2063–2065 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. K. Pasco, J.H. Everest, “Plastic Optics for Optoelectronics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 71–76 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Levi, Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 27.

1989

R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Towards Optimum Diffraction Efficiency for Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 259–263 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: a Study of Their Storage Life and Reprocessibility,” Appl. Opt. 28, 340–344 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Ong, R. P. Chang, “Low-Temperature Deposition of Diamond Films for Optical Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2063–2065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

1980

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

1978

I. K. Pasco, J.H. Everest, “Plastic Optics for Optoelectronics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 71–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968

Babu, S. S. C.

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).

Chang, R. P.

T. P. Ong, R. P. Chang, “Low-Temperature Deposition of Diamond Films for Optical Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2063–2065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Changkakoti, R.

Colburn, W. S.

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Technical Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (Jan.1973).

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Everest, J.H.

I. K. Pasco, J.H. Everest, “Plastic Optics for Optoelectronics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 71–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Levi, L.

L. Levi, Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 27.

Ong, T. P.

T. P. Ong, R. P. Chang, “Low-Temperature Deposition of Diamond Films for Optical Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2063–2065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pappu, S. V.

Pasco, I. K.

I. K. Pasco, J.H. Everest, “Plastic Optics for Optoelectronics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 71–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Ralston, L. M.

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Technical Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (Jan.1973).

Shankoff, T. A.

Ward, A. A.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Zech, R. G.

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Technical Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (Jan.1973).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. P. Ong, R. P. Chang, “Low-Temperature Deposition of Diamond Films for Optical Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2063–2065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).

Opt. Laser Technol.

R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Towards Optimum Diffraction Efficiency for Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 259–263 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Pasco, J.H. Everest, “Plastic Optics for Optoelectronics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 71–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Other

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Technical Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (Jan.1973).

H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.

L. Levi, Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 27.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized diffraction efficiency vs time of exposure to high humidity for uncoated and coated DCG holograms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance vs baking temperature for uncoated DCG plates. Wavelength of light used in the measurements was λ = 633 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized diffraction efficiency vs time of exposure to high humidity for uncoated and baked DCG holograms.

Tables (5)

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Table I Procedure for Making DCG Holograms

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Table II Physical Properties of Some Polymers of Interest In the Present Investigation11,12

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Table III Measured and Normalized Diffraction Efficiencies of DCG Holograms Coated with Different Polymers and Exposed to High Humiditya

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Table IV Measured and Normalized Diffraction Efficiencies of DCG Holograms Baked at Different Temperatures and Exposed to High Humiditya

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Table V Diffraction Efficiency Data of the Various Types of Hologram Used In This Study After Having Been Fully Exposed to High Humidity and Subjected to the Step of Reprocessing

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