Abstract

Temperature measurements using vibrational Raman scattering from molecular nitrogen were performed simultaneously with temperature obtained by Rayleigh scattering in the amplitude range between 12 and 30 km. The downward extension of the Rayleigh temperature described in this paper leads to the possibility of obtaining a continuous temperature profile from 12 to nearly 100 km. The temperature profiles have been obtained using an instrument made up basically as a Rayleigh lidar with an extra channel. The measurements are in close agreement with the CIRA model and simultaneous balloon sounding.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar Studies of Temperature and Density Using Scattering,” Map Handbook 13, 87–89 (1984).
  3. G. K. Yue, “Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1775–1779 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. V. Raman, “A Change of Wave-Length in Light Scattering,” Nature London 121, 619 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering From the Atmosphere Using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142–143 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Cooney, “Uses of Raman Scattering for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties of Meteorological Significance,” Opt. Eng. 22, 292–301 (1983).
  7. S. H. Melfi, “Remote Measurement of the Atmosphere Using Raman Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1605–1610 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. R. Fenner, H. A. Hyatt, J. M. Kellam, S. P. S. Porto, “Raman Cross Section of Some Simple Gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 73–76 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Hyatt, J. M. Cherlow, W. R. Fenner, S. P. S. Porto, “Cross Section for the Raman Effect in Molecular Nitrogen Gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1604–1606 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, “Atmospheric Temperature Measurement Using Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2665–2669 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. J. Lefrere, J. Pelon, C. Cohen, A. Hauchecorne, P. Flamant, “Lidar Survey of the Post Mt. St. Helens Stratospheric Aerosol at Haute Provence Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 20, A70–1117 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. P. McCormick, J. D. Lawrence, F. R. Crownfield, “Mie Total and Differential Backscattering Cross Sections at Laser Wavelengths for Junge Aerosol Models,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2424–2425 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Hirono, T. Shibata, “Enormous Increase of Stratospheric Aerosols Over Fukuoka Due to Volcanic Eruption of El Chichon in 1982” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 152–154 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Wilson, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Gravity Wave Spectra in the Middle Atmosphere as Observed by Rayleigh Lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.
  20. M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1775–1779 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar Studies of Temperature and Density Using Scattering,” Map Handbook 13, 87–89 (1984).

1983

J. A. Cooney, “Uses of Raman Scattering for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties of Meteorological Significance,” Opt. Eng. 22, 292–301 (1983).

M. Hirono, T. Shibata, “Enormous Increase of Stratospheric Aerosols Over Fukuoka Due to Volcanic Eruption of El Chichon in 1982” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 152–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

1973

1972

1971

1968

1967

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering From the Atmosphere Using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142–143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1928

C. V. Raman, “A Change of Wave-Length in Light Scattering,” Nature London 121, 619 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar Studies of Temperature and Density Using Scattering,” Map Handbook 13, 87–89 (1984).

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Gravity Wave Spectra in the Middle Atmosphere as Observed by Rayleigh Lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.

Cherlow, J. M.

Cohen, C.

Cooney, J. A.

J. A. Cooney, “Uses of Raman Scattering for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties of Meteorological Significance,” Opt. Eng. 22, 292–301 (1983).

Crownfield, F. R.

Cupp, R. E.

Dao, P.

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

Davidson, G.

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

Derr, V. E.

Fenner, W. R.

Flamant, P.

Godin, S.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Halldorsson, T.

Hauchecorne, A.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar Studies of Temperature and Density Using Scattering,” Map Handbook 13, 87–89 (1984).

J. Lefrere, J. Pelon, C. Cohen, A. Hauchecorne, P. Flamant, “Lidar Survey of the Post Mt. St. Helens Stratospheric Aerosol at Haute Provence Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 20, A70–1117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Gravity Wave Spectra in the Middle Atmosphere as Observed by Rayleigh Lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.

Hirono, M.

M. Hirono, T. Shibata, “Enormous Increase of Stratospheric Aerosols Over Fukuoka Due to Volcanic Eruption of El Chichon in 1982” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 152–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hyatt, H. A.

Kellam, J. M.

Langerholc, J.

Lawrence, J. D.

Lefrere, J.

Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering From the Atmosphere Using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142–143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

Megie, G.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

Moskowitz, W. P.

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lefrere, J. Pelon, C. Cohen, A. Hauchecorne, P. Flamant, “Lidar Survey of the Post Mt. St. Helens Stratospheric Aerosol at Haute Provence Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 20, A70–1117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philbrick, C. R.

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

Porto, S. P. S.

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman, “A Change of Wave-Length in Light Scattering,” Nature London 121, 619 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

M. Hirono, T. Shibata, “Enormous Increase of Stratospheric Aerosols Over Fukuoka Due to Volcanic Eruption of El Chichon in 1982” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 152–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D.

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

Smires, N.

M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, R. G.

Wilson, R.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Gravity Wave Spectra in the Middle Atmosphere as Observed by Rayleigh Lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, “Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1775–1779 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. Hirono, T. Shibata, “Enormous Increase of Stratospheric Aerosols Over Fukuoka Due to Volcanic Eruption of El Chichon in 1982” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 152–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, R. Wilson, “Mesospheric Temperature Inversion and Gravity Waves Breaking,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 933–936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol.

G. K. Yue, “Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1775–1779 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 8, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, N. Smires, A. Hauchecorne, “Long Term Variation of the Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere at Mid Latitude: Dynamical and Radiative Causes,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 933–941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Map Handbook

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar Studies of Temperature and Density Using Scattering,” Map Handbook 13, 87–89 (1984).

Nature London

C. V. Raman, “A Change of Wave-Length in Light Scattering,” Nature London 121, 619 (1928).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering From the Atmosphere Using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142–143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. A. Cooney, “Uses of Raman Scattering for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties of Meteorological Significance,” Opt. Eng. 22, 292–301 (1983).

Other

R. Wilson, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Gravity Wave Spectra in the Middle Atmosphere as Observed by Rayleigh Lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.

S. L. Valley, Ed., Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments (McGraw-Hall, New York, 1965).

W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, D. Sipler, C. R. Philbrick, P. Dao, “Raman Augmentation for Rayleigh Lidar,” in Abstract, Lidar International Conference (Innichen San Candido, Italy, May1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the Raman–Rayleigh lidar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lidar temperature profiles compared with the corresponding CIRA 1988 model (dashed lines): (A) 09/11/88, 19H03 06H17; (B) 08/02/89, 18H26 06H13; (C) 14/04/89, 21H05 23H56.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lidar temperature profiles compared with the corresponding balloon sounding obtained on (A) 09/11/88, 19H15; (B) 09/02/89, 07H30, (C) 14/04/89, 00H00.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution during a February night with a time resolution of 1 h and a vertical resolution of 300 m.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Attenuation Correction Given in Temperature Change

Tables Icon

TABLE II Lidar Characteristics

Equations (1)

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N ( z i ) = N 0 G A K R q T 1 T 2 n N 2 ( z i ) β N 2 Δ z 4 π ( z i - z 0 ) 2 ,

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