Abstract

Measurements of 8–12-μm near-horizon sky radiances and meteorological parameters over the ocean near San Diego, CA, were used to evaluate the sky radiance algorithm of lowtran 6. Discrepancies in measured and calculated sky radiances previously attributed to the neglect of multiple scattering effects of aerosols can be overcome by introducing additional low level layers in the calculations of lowtran 6. A comparison between radiance calculations using the single scattering, additive layer approach and those using a multiple scattering version of lowtran raises questions about the applicability of the multiple scattering approach in the far infrared region.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ben-Shalom, B. Barzilai, D. Cabib, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, “Sky Radiance at Wavelengths Between 7 and 14 μm: Measurements, Calculation, and Comparison with lowtran 4 Predictions,” Appl. Opt. 19, 838–839 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).
  3. H. G. Hughes, W. J. Schade, L. R. Hitney, “Effects of Aerosols on Low-Elevation Infrared Sky Radiances,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1536–1538 (1986).
  4. F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance–Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 6,” AFGL-TR-83-0187 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).
  5. S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of the Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the Navy Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57–62 (1983).
  6. H. G. Hughes, “Evaluation of the lowtran 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Modeling Using 8 to 12 μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155–1163 (1987).
  7. A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, “Infrared Spectral Radiance of the Sky,” Opt. Eng. 22, 460–463 (1983).
  8. P. Schlussel, “Infrarotfernerkundung von Oberflachentemperaturen sowie atmospharischen Temperatur- und Wasserdampfstrukturen,” Berichte aus dem Institut fur Meereskunde, U. Kiel (1987).
  9. R. Richter, “Some Aspects of the Atmospheric Radiance Model of lowtran 6,” DFVLR-Forschungsbericht 85-33, German Aerospace Research Establishment, 8031 Wessling, F.R. Germany (1985).
  10. R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).
  11. R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. X. Kneizys et al., “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1988).

1987 (2)

H. G. Hughes, “Evaluation of the lowtran 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Modeling Using 8 to 12 μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155–1163 (1987).

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1983 (2)

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of the Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the Navy Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57–62 (1983).

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, “Infrared Spectral Radiance of the Sky,” Opt. Eng. 22, 460–463 (1983).

1980 (1)

Barzilai, B.

Ben-Shalom, A.

Cabib, D.

Chetwynd, J. H.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).

Devir, A. D.

Gathman, S. G.

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of the Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the Navy Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57–62 (1983).

Goldenberg, S.

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).

Hitney, L. R.

Hughes, H. G.

H. G. Hughes, “Evaluation of the lowtran 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Modeling Using 8 to 12 μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155–1163 (1987).

H. G. Hughes, W. J. Schade, L. R. Hitney, “Effects of Aerosols on Low-Elevation Infrared Sky Radiances,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1536–1538 (1986).

Isaacs, R. G.

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).

Kneizys, F. X.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1988).

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance–Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 6,” AFGL-TR-83-0187 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Lipson, S. G.

McClatchey, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).

Oppenheim, U. P.

Richter, R.

R. Richter, “Some Aspects of the Atmospheric Radiance Model of lowtran 6,” DFVLR-Forschungsbericht 85-33, German Aerospace Research Establishment, 8031 Wessling, F.R. Germany (1985).

Schade, W. J.

Schlussel, P.

P. Schlussel, “Infrarotfernerkundung von Oberflachentemperaturen sowie atmospharischen Temperatur- und Wasserdampfstrukturen,” Berichte aus dem Institut fur Meereskunde, U. Kiel (1987).

Selby, J. E. A.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).

Wang, W. C.

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).

Worsham, R. D.

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Eng. (3)

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of the Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the Navy Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57–62 (1983).

H. G. Hughes, “Evaluation of the lowtran 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Modeling Using 8 to 12 μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155–1163 (1987).

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, “Infrared Spectral Radiance of the Sky,” Opt. Eng. 22, 460–463 (1983).

Other (6)

P. Schlussel, “Infrarotfernerkundung von Oberflachentemperaturen sowie atmospharischen Temperatur- und Wasserdampfstrukturen,” Berichte aus dem Institut fur Meereskunde, U. Kiel (1987).

R. Richter, “Some Aspects of the Atmospheric Radiance Model of lowtran 6,” DFVLR-Forschungsbericht 85-33, German Aerospace Research Establishment, 8031 Wessling, F.R. Germany (1985).

R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering Treatment for Use in the lowtran and fascode Models,” AFGL-TR-86-0073 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986).

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance–Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 6,” AFGL-TR-83-0187 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1978).

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of measured sky radiances and those calculated by lowtran 6 vs zenith angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiance calculated with lowtran 6 as a function of zenith angle for different numbers of layers added (rural aerosol model, visibility = 23 km).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiance calculated with lowtran 6 as a function of zenith angle for different numbers of layers added (rural aerosol model, visibility = 5 km).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of sky radiances measured with the AGA system on 30 June 1987 with radiances calculated with lowtran 6 with and without layers added.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of sky radiances measured by Ben-Shalom et al.1 and those calculated by lowtran 6 with and without additive layering and by lowtran 7.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Scattering Transmittance τs, Percentage of Layer Contribution to Radiance P (%) and Layer Temperature T(K) for Different Zenith Angles of 90°, 90.05°, and 90.15°, Layer Heights, and 12-μm Wavelength

Equations (1)

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I ( Γ ) = i = 1 N - 1 [ τ a ( Γ , i ) - τ a ( Γ , i + 1 ) ] B { Γ , [ T ( i ) + T ( i + 1 ) ] / 2 } × [ τ s ( Γ , i ) + τ s ( Γ , i + 1 ) ] / 2 .

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