Abstract

Laser beam lithography for micro-Fresnel lenses (MFLs) with blazed grooves is proposed and demonstrated including the system configuration and characteristics of the resulting lenses. The resolution is even better than that of electron-beam lithography in forming 1-μm deep relief gratings in resist. A laser beam lithographed MFL with a diameter as large as 9.6 mm is described as well as a compact MFL (N.A. 0.21) butt coupled to an optical waveguide. In these two distinct MFLs, nearly diffraction-limited spot sizes have been obtained with diffraction efficiencies of 50% or more. A specific MFL array used for an integrated optic laser Doppler velocimeter is also presented.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Fabrication of Micro Lenses Using Electron-Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed Gratings and Fresnel Lenses Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “I. Micro Fresnel Lenses,” in Progress in Optics, Vol. 24, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. F. Kyser, K. Murata, “Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrate,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 352 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.
  6. M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-Optic Differential Laser Doppler Velocimeter with a Micro Fresnel Lens Array,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (1989), paper MBB4.
  7. T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Rectangular-Apertured Micro-Fresnel Lens Arrays Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 587–591 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

D. F. Kyser, K. Murata, “Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrate,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 352 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, S.

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.

Fujita, T.

Haruna, M.

M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-Optic Differential Laser Doppler Velocimeter with a Micro Fresnel Lens Array,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (1989), paper MBB4.

Inoue, T.

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.

Kasazumi, K.

M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-Optic Differential Laser Doppler Velocimeter with a Micro Fresnel Lens Array,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (1989), paper MBB4.

Koyama, J.

Kyser, D. F.

D. F. Kyser, K. Murata, “Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrate,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 352 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

D. F. Kyser, K. Murata, “Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrate,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 352 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed Gratings and Fresnel Lenses Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Fabrication of Micro Lenses Using Electron-Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “I. Micro Fresnel Lenses,” in Progress in Optics, Vol. 24, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-Optic Differential Laser Doppler Velocimeter with a Micro Fresnel Lens Array,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (1989), paper MBB4.

Ogata, S.

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.

Setsune, K.

Shiono, T.

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “I. Micro Fresnel Lenses,” in Progress in Optics, Vol. 24, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987).
[CrossRef]

Wasa, K.

Yamashita, T.

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.

Yamazaki, O.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. F. Kyser, K. Murata, “Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrate,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 352 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “I. Micro Fresnel Lenses,” in Progress in Optics, Vol. 24, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser Diode Source Integrating a High-Diffraction-Efficiency Micro-Fresnel Lens with 0.5 N.A. Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THM49.

M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-Optic Differential Laser Doppler Velocimeter with a Micro Fresnel Lens Array,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (1989), paper MBB4.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical configuration of micro-Fresnel lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System configuration of laser beam lithography.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Blazed procedure for MFLs under sawtoothlike dose distribution formed by the laser beam exposure with a 0.1-μm step.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the depth with the period in 1-μm deep relief gratings in the resists under rectangular dose distribution in both electron beam and laser beam exposures. The cross sections of relief gratings obtained in the experiment are also sketched.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conceptional view for the broadening of focused beam spots due to scattering in resist: (a) electron beam and (b) laser beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoresist profile of Fresnel zones near the outer edge of the 9.6-mm diam MFL with a N.A. of 0.05.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic view of the MFL–waveguide coupling.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Design concept of the MFL coupled to an optical waveguide.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laser beam lithographed MFL for coupling to a 3-μm wide single-mode waveguide in Ti diffused LiNbO3, where the lens radius is 106 μm with a N.A. of 0.21.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Focused spot of the output light from the waveguide via the MFL.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Lens array consisting of two off-axis MFLs coupled to output branches of a Y-junction waveguide and an in-line MFL coupled to a center waveguide.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Microscope photograph of the fabricated MFL array.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Interference fringes on the image point of the MFL array observed after hybrid integration of the MFL array and a LiNbO3 waveguide device.

Tables (1)

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Table I Comparison of Electron-Beam and Laser Beam Lithographles in Fabricating MFLs for 0.633-μm Use

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