Abstract

We have experimentally proved the optical field evolution in waveguide junctions formed by potassium ion exchange in a glass substrate using a microcomputer assisted video camera observing system. The optical field profiles in various waveguide junctions such as Y- and X-junctions have been clearly observed. Most of the results support the predicted operation of the junctions.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Tamir, Ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, T. Sueta, “Operation Mechanism of the Single-Mode Optical-Waveguide Y-Junction,” Opt. Lett. 7, 136–138 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Izutsu, A. Enokihara, T. Sueta, “Optical-Waveguide Hybrid Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 7, 549–551 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.
  5. Y. Okamura, S. Sato, S. Yamamoto, “Simple Method of Measuring Propagation Properties of Integrated Optical Waveguides: an Improvement,” Appl. Opt. 24, 57–60 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Okamura, A. Miki, S. Yamamoto, “Observation of Wave Propagation in Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3405–3408 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Grating Measurement Using a Microcomputer Assisted TV Camera System,” in Technical Digest, Second Optoelectronics Conference, Tokyo (1988), p. 156.
  10. T. G. Giallorenzi, E. J. West, R. Kirk, R. Ginther, R. A. Andrews, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Thermal Migration of Ions in Glass,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1240–1245 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Findakly, C.-L. Chen, “Optical Directional Couplers with Variable Spacing,” Appl. Opt. 17, 769–773 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, A. B. Lee, E. J. West, “Optical Modal Evolution 3-dB Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1053–1065 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1982

1978

1976

1973

Andrews, R. A.

Burns, W. K.

Chen, C.-L.

Cheng, H. C.

C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.

Enokihara, A.

Findakly, T.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Ginther, R.

Hussell, C. P.

C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.

Izutsu, M.

Kirk, R.

Lee, A. B.

Miki, A.

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okamura, A. Miki, S. Yamamoto, “Observation of Wave Propagation in Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3405–3408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Grating Measurement Using a Microcomputer Assisted TV Camera System,” in Technical Digest, Second Optoelectronics Conference, Tokyo (1988), p. 156.

Milton, A. F.

Nakai, Y.

Okamura, Y.

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okamura, A. Miki, S. Yamamoto, “Observation of Wave Propagation in Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3405–3408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okamura, S. Sato, S. Yamamoto, “Simple Method of Measuring Propagation Properties of Integrated Optical Waveguides: an Improvement,” Appl. Opt. 24, 57–60 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Grating Measurement Using a Microcomputer Assisted TV Camera System,” in Technical Digest, Second Optoelectronics Conference, Tokyo (1988), p. 156.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.

Sato, S.

Srivastava, R.

C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.

Sueta, T.

West, E. J.

Yamamoto, S.

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okamura, A. Miki, S. Yamamoto, “Observation of Wave Propagation in Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3405–3408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okamura, S. Sato, S. Yamamoto, “Simple Method of Measuring Propagation Properties of Integrated Optical Waveguides: an Improvement,” Appl. Opt. 24, 57–60 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Grating Measurement Using a Microcomputer Assisted TV Camera System,” in Technical Digest, Second Optoelectronics Conference, Tokyo (1988), p. 156.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Lens Measurement Using an Image Processing System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 776–777 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Directional Coupler Measurements Using a Microcomputer-Assisted TV Camera System,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 1912–1918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Miki, Y. Okamura, S. Yamamoto, “Optical Waveguide Grating Measurement Using a Microcomputer Assisted TV Camera System,” in Technical Digest, Second Optoelectronics Conference, Tokyo (1988), p. 156.

T. Tamir, Ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hussell, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Single-Mode Cross-Coupler 3dB Power Dividers by Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Second MOC/Eighth GRIN, Tokyo (1989), paper D3, pp. 70–73.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Guided-wave interferometric circuit for test. All waveguides are formed in a glass substrate with a potassium ion exchange technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field evolution in a symmetric Y-junction Y1 when launching a transversely polarized wave from waveguide I.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the optical field in a symmetric Y-junction Y1 when exciting transversely polarized waves from the two output waveguides. Excitation (a) in-phase and (b) out-of-phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical field profile in the asymmetric X-junction when simultaneously launching two beams from the symmetric Y-junction Y2. Excitation (a) in-phase and (b) out-of-phase. The excited mode is a transversely polarized wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 for excitation from one of the waveguides of the asymmetric Y-junction Y3. Launching from (a) the wide waveguide and (b) the narrow waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of a 3-dB coupler using an asymmetric X-junction. The excited mode is a transversely polarized wave.

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