Abstract

Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) of neutral atoms sputtered from III–V compound semiconductors such as AlxGa1−xAs provides information that is complementary to secondary ion mass spectrometry with the added advantages of rejecting mass interferences, retaining good sensitivity, and reducing matrix effects. A GaAs sample, delta doped with Be, is used to measure depth resolution and Be secondary ion and atom yield. Because of the coupling of the pulsed RIMS lasers and continuous sputtering beam, duty cycle factors are used to determine the atom yield. A 3-D model of the geometrical overlap of laser and sputtered atoms is developed to ascertain the same utilization efficiency in RIMS. About 30% of the atoms sputtered in 1 μs are calculated to be in the laser beam. The atom yield was found to be near unity. The time-gated RIMS useful yield is ~2%. RIMS is used to minimize matrix effects in a depth profile of a Be-implanted AlAs/Al0.2Ga0.8As heterostructure and shows that Be diffuses from higher Al-containing layers at concentrations near 1019 cm−3. The atomization of As is shown to be affected by the Al content in a GaAs/Al0.5Ga0.5As structure.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “A Hybrid Resonance Ionization and Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 791–796 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).
  7. D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1885).
  11. S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “Reduction of Matrix Effects in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry by Resonance Ionization,” in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS VII, A. Benninghoven, C. A. Evans, A. M. Huber, K. McKeegan, H. A. Storms, H. W. Werner, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1990), 283–286.
  12. R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 2.
  13. R. Ludeke, R. M. King, E. H. C. Parker, “MBE Surfaces and Interface Studies,” in The Techniques and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, E. H. C. Parker, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 592.

1990

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “A Hybrid Resonance Ionization and Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 791–796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

1983

J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arlinghaus, H. F.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Avau, D.

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Biersack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1885).

Calaway, W. F.

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

Callaway, W. F.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cressman, P. J.

J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DeBisschop, P.

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Debrun, J. L.

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Downey, S. W.

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “A Hybrid Resonance Ionization and Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 791–796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “Reduction of Matrix Effects in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry by Resonance Ionization,” in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS VII, A. Benninghoven, C. A. Evans, A. M. Huber, K. McKeegan, H. A. Storms, H. W. Werner, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1990), 283–286.

Dubreuil, B.

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ervin, M. H.

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galuska, A. A.

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gelin, P.

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gobert, O.

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gruen, D. M.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

Hopkins, L. C.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hozack, R. S.

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “A Hybrid Resonance Ionization and Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 791–796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “Reduction of Matrix Effects in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry by Resonance Ionization,” in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS VII, A. Benninghoven, C. A. Evans, A. M. Huber, K. McKeegan, H. A. Storms, H. W. Werner, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1990), 283–286.

Hrubowchak, D. M.

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inglebert, R. L.

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, B.

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

King, R. M.

R. Ludeke, R. M. King, E. H. C. Parker, “MBE Surfaces and Interface Studies,” in The Techniques and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, E. H. C. Parker, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 592.

Kopf, R. F.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Littmark, U.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1885).

Ludeke, R.

R. Ludeke, R. M. King, E. H. C. Parker, “MBE Surfaces and Interface Studies,” in The Techniques and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, E. H. C. Parker, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 592.

Luftman, H. S.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Magee, C. W.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 2.

Marquez, N.

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meuris, M.

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pappas, D. L.

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, E. H. C.

R. Ludeke, R. M. King, E. H. C. Parker, “MBE Surfaces and Interface Studies,” in The Techniques and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, E. H. C. Parker, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 592.

Parks, J. E.

J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pellin, M. J.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

Sauer, N. J.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, E. L.

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

Sparr, M. T.

J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stevie, F. A.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 2.

Uht, J.

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vandervorst, W.

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, W. O.

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. G.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 2.

Winograd, N.

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, C. E.

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1885).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Meuris, W. Vandervorst, P. DeBisschop, D. Avau, “Mass and Energy Dependence of Depth Resolution Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiments with Iodine, Oxygen and Cesium Beams on AlGaAs/GaAs Multilayer Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1531–1533 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, W. F. Calaway, B. Jorgensen, E. L. Schweitzer, D. M. Gruen, “Trace Surface Analysis via RIS/TOF Mass Spectrometry,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 84, 163–168 (1986).

J. Appl. Phys.

E. F. Schubert, J. M. Kuo, R. F. Kopf, H. S. Luftman, L. C. Hopkins, N. J. Sauer, “Beryllium δ-Doping of GaAs Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1969–1979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arlinghaus, W. F. Callaway, C. E. Young, M. J. Pellin, D. M. Gruen, L. L. Chase, “High-Resolution Multiphoton Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Zinc Atoms Ejected from Laser-Irradiated ZnS Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 281–289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “A Hybrid Resonance Ionization and Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 791–796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

P. Gelin, J. L. Debrun, O. Gobert, R. L. Inglebert, B. Dubreuil, “Resonant Ionization of Sputtered Neutral Atoms for Trace Analysis in High Purity Materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 40/41, 290–292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. L. Pappas, D. M. Hrubowchak, M. H. Ervin, N. Winograd, “Atom Counting at Surfaces,” Science 243, 64–66 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Int. Anal.

A. A. Galuska, W. O. Wallace, N. Marquez, J. Uht, “SIMS Matrix Effects in AlxGa1−xAs: Influence of Instrumental Parameters,” Surf. Int. Anal. 14, 31–38. (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. E. Parks, M. T. Sparr, P. J. Cressman, “Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 108, 69–78 (1983); F. M. Kimock, J. P. Baxter, D. L. Pappas, P. H. Korbin, N. Winograd, “Solids Analysis Using Energetic Ion Bombardment and Multiphoton Resonance Ionization with Time-of-Flight Detection,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2782–2791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1885).

S. W. Downey, R. S. Hozack, “Reduction of Matrix Effects in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry by Resonance Ionization,” in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS VII, A. Benninghoven, C. A. Evans, A. M. Huber, K. McKeegan, H. A. Storms, H. W. Werner, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1990), 283–286.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 2.

R. Ludeke, R. M. King, E. H. C. Parker, “MBE Surfaces and Interface Studies,” in The Techniques and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, E. H. C. Parker, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 592.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RIMS depth profile of a GaAs sample delta doped with Be obtained with 2-keV Xe+ sputtering. The Be concentration is 2.9 ×1013 cm−2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a laser beam and sputtered atom source showing the pertinent parameters used in calculation of the number of sample atoms contained in the laser beam. The solid is located in the x-direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inset: Raw Be RIMS depth profile of (Al0.2Ga0.8As/AlAs)n=10 sample showing the effect of sputter rate changes. Solid line: Be data normalized with As RIMS depth profile corrects for sputter rate changes and shows segregation of Be out of the AlAs layer. Dotted line: Monte Carlo TRIM code calculation of the Be implant in bulk Al0.4Ga0.6As. The data are obtained with 7-keV Ar+ sputtering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RIMS-like depth profiles for the (GaAs/Al0.5Ga0.5As)2 sample obtained at 240 nm with 2-keV Xe+ sputtering. The GaAs layers are 100 nm thick, and the AlGaAs layers are 200 nm thick. Solidline: the 102AlAs+ profile shows a large diatomic fraction. Dottedline: 144GaAs+ profile shows an anomalously low signal in the Al-containing layers due to preferential sputtering of AlAs. The asterisks denote scale changes at the beginning of each profile.

Tables (1)

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Table I Comparison of SIMS and RIMS Results on the Delta Doped Be In GaAs Sample

Equations (6)

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Ω = φ ( x , y , z ) d x d y d z ,
Ω = N x ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) - 3 / 2 d x d y d z ,
x = x 0 + r ( cos θ ) , y = y 0 + r ( sin θ ) , z = z .
Ω = N - + 0 2 π 0 c ( x + r cos θ ) d r d θ d z [ ( x 0 + r cos θ ) 2 + ( y 0 + r sin θ ) 2 + z 2 ] 3 / 2 .
Ω = 2 π N ( c 2 x 0 ) / [ ( x 0 2 + y 0 2 ) V Be ] .
Ω = 2 π N c / V Be .

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